Changeset 21614 in main

09/21/20 22:50:32 (5 weeks ago)
Katherine Benson

Updated text for PhysicalActivity?.xml health topic.

1 edited


  • adopters/hi/branches/2.3/src/main/webapps/ibisph-view-content/xml/topic/html_content/PhysicalActivity.xml

    r18891 r21614  
    1919                        <TITLE>Description</TITLE>
    2020                        <CONTENT>
    21                                 Regular physical activity is any body movement that works your muscles or joints and requires
    22                                 more energy than resting. Physical activity can take a variety of forms.
    23                                 <br/>
     21                                Regular physical activity is important for overall health and well-being. Among adults, physical
     22                                activity can lower the risk of premature death, chronic disease, some forms of cancer, falls and
     23                                associated injuries, and depression. For children and adolescents, physical activity can improve
     24                                bone health, cardio-respiratory fitness and muscle strength, and reduce body fat and symptoms of
     25                                depression. For people who are inactive, even small increases in physical activity are associated
     26                                with health benefits.
     27                                <br/><br/>
     28                                The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends:
    2429                                <ul class="Indent">
    25                                         <li>Aerobic activity involves using large muscle groups, such as in the legs and arms, and
    26                                         increases your heart rate and breathing. It improves endurance, circulation, and lung function.
    27                                         Examples include brisk walking, running, bicycling, swimming, and
    28                                         dancing.<span class="SmallerFont"><sup><a href="#ref1">1</a></sup></span></li>
    29                                         <li>Strength exercise increases muscle strength and power, which can improve your ability to
    30                                         stay independent and carry out everyday activities, such as climbing stairs, doing yard work,
    31                                         and carrying groceries. This type of exercise is also called "strength training" or "resistance
    32                                         training." Examples include lifting weights or using a resistance band.</li>
    33                                         <li>Flexibility exercise stretches muscles, ligaments, and tendons. It helps with freedom of
    34                                         movement and reduces the risk of injury. Flexibility exercise involves taking a joint through
    35                                         its range of motion and trying to extend that range.</li>
    36                                         <li>Balance exercise improves your body's reflexes to stay upright and protect joints from
    37                                         sudden over-flexion or extension. Better balance helps to prevent falls and joint injuries.
    38                                         Examples include standing on one foot and practicing Tai Chi. Many lower-body strength
    39                                         exercises also improve your balance.<span class="SmallerFont"><sup><a href="#ref2">2</a></sup></span></li>
    40                                         <li>Bone-strengthening exercise involves activity that causes your feet, legs, or arms to
    41                                         support your body's weight and your muscles to push against your bones. This causes your
    42                                         bones to become stronger.</li>
     30                                        <li>Adults need at least 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity
     31                                        (or equivalent mix of both) per week PLUS muscle-strengthening activities that work all
     32                                        major muscle groups on two or more days per week.</li>
     33                                        <li>Children and adolescents (6-17 year of age) need at least 60 minutes of physical activity
     34                                        per day including muscle strengthening activities at least 3 days per week.</li>
    4335                                </ul>
    44                                 <br/>
    45                                 <hr/>
    46                                 <div class="SmallerFont">
    47                                         <a name="ref1"></a>1. <a href="">
    48                                </a>, downloaded on 7/11/2014.
    49                                         <br/>
    50                                         <a name="ref2"></a>2. <a href="">
    51                               </a>, downloaded on 7/11/2014.
    52                                         <br/>
    53                                 </div>
    5436                        </CONTENT>
    5537                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
    5840                        <TITLE>Why It's Important</TITLE>
    5941                        <CONTENT>
     42                                Too few Americans are getting the recommended amount of physical activity. Only 1 in 4 adults
     43                                and 1 in 5 high school students meet the recommended levels of aerobic and muscle-strengthening
     44                                activities. Moreover, about 31 million adults aged 50 years or older are inactive, getting no
     45                                physical activity beyond that of daily living.
     46                                <br/><br/>
     47                                Physical inactivity contributes to 1 in 10 premature deaths and inadequate levels of physical
     48                                activity are associated with $117 billion a year in health care costs.
     49                                <br/><br/>
    6050                                Physical activity has many health benefits. These benefits apply to people of all ages and races
    61                                 and both sexes.<span class="SmallerFont"><sup><a href="#ref3">3,</a><a href="#ref4">4</a></sup></span>
    62                                 <br/>
     51                                and both sexes.
    6352                                <ul class="Indent">
    6453                                        <li>Physical activity lowers your risk for chronic diseases, including heart disease,
    6655                                        <li>Physical activity can lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels.</li>
    6756                                        <li>It can raise HDL (good) cholesterol levels.</li>
    68                                         <li>Helps the body manage blood sugar and insulin levels, which lowers your risk for type
     57                                        <li>It helps the body manage blood sugar and insulin levels, which lowers your risk for type
    6958                                        2 diabetes.</li>
    70                                         <li>Helps to maintain a healthy weight.</li>
     59                                        <li>It helps to maintain a healthy weight.</li>
    7160                                        <li>It improves mobility and reduces the risk for falls in older adults.</li>
    72                                         <li>It can help reduce feeling of depression and improve overall mood, feelings of well-being,
    73                                         and cognitive functioning.<span class="SmallerFont"><sup><a href="#ref4">4,</a><a href="#ref5">5</a></sup></span></li>
     61                                        <li>It can help reduce feelings of depression and improve overall mood, feelings of well-being,
     62                                        and cognitive functioning.</li>
    7463                                        <li>Bone strengthening exercise can reduce the risk of osteoporosis (weak, porous bones).</li>
    7564                                        <li>Physical activity can improve functioning and reduce pain for persons with osteoarthritis.</li>
    7665                                </ul>
    77                                 <br/>
    78                                 <hr/>
    79                                 <div class="SmallerFont">
    80                                         <a name="ref3"></a>3. <a href="">
    81                                </a>, downloaded on 7/11/2014.
    82                                         <br/>
    83                                         <a name="ref4"></a>4. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Department of Health and
    84                                         Human Services, ODPHP Publication No. U0036, October 2008, downloaded from <a href="">
    85                               </a>, downloaded on 7/11/2014.
    86                                         <br/>
    87                                         <a name="ref5"></a>5. <a href="">
    88                               </a>, downloaded on 7/11/2014.
    89                                         <br/>
    90                                 </div>
    9166                        </CONTENT>
    9267                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
    9570                        <TITLE>What Is Known</TITLE>
    9671                        <CONTENT>
    97                                 Nationally in 2012, 23% of adults reported that they did not participate in any physical
    98                                 activities,<span class="SmallerFont"><sup><a href="#ref6">6</a></sup></span> and only 32% of high
    99                                 school students reported that they typically attended a physical education class on every day of the
    100                                 week.<span class="SmallerFont"><sup><a href="#ref7">7</a></sup></span>
    101                                 <br/><br/>
    102                                 <hr/>
    103                                 <div class="SmallerFont">
    104                                         <a name="ref6"></a>6. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, downloaded on 7/11/2014 from
    105                                         <a href=""></a>.
    106                                         <br/>
    107                                         <a name="ref7"></a>7. Trends in the Prevalence of Physical Activitiy and Sedentary Behaviors.
    108                                         National YRBS: 1991-2013. Downloaded on 7/11/2014 from
    109                                         <a href="">
    110                               </a>.
    111                                         <br/>
    112                                 </div>
     72                                In Hawaii in 2017, only 24.8% of adults met the recommendations aerobic and muscle-strengthening
     73                                physical activity and 23.5% of adults reported no leisure time physical activity. Men (29.5%)
     74                                were more likely to meet physical activity recommendations than women (19.8%). Native Alaskan and
     75                                American Indians were the most likely to meet recommendations (35.6%) and Chinese (14.1%) were
     76                                the least likely. The proportion meeting physical activity recommendations increased with income
     77                                and education and decreased with age.
     78                                <br/><br/>
     79                                Among public school students, 21.3% of middle school and 15.4% of high school students met the
     80                                physical activity guidelines in 2017, but 13.6% of middle school and 19.3% of high school students
     81                                got less than 60 minutes of total physically activity on all of the past 7 days. High school boys
     82                                were about twice as likely as girls to meet recommendations (19.9% and 11.3%, respectively) and the
     83                                proportion who met recommendations decreased by grade from 20.0% among 9th graders to 12.1% among
     84                                12th graders. Caucasians were the most likely to meet recommendations (18.9%) and other Asians were
     85                                least likely (7.7%). Middle school boys were about twice as likely as girls to meet recommendations
     86                                (26.9% and 13.7%, respectively) and while the proportion of boys meeting guidelines remained
     87                                relatively constant by grade, it decreases by grade among girls. Native Hawaiian middle school
     88                                students were the most likely to meet recommendations (24.9%) and other Asians were least likely (9.5%).
    11389                        </CONTENT>
    11490                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
    11793                        <TITLE>Who Is at Risk</TITLE>
    11894                        <CONTENT>
    119                                 The health benefits of physical activity outweigh the risks of adverse consequences of exercise for
    120                                 almost everyone.
    121                                 <br/><br/>
    122                                 Factors positively associated with adult physical activity
    123                                 include:<span class="SmallerFont"><sup><a href="#ref8">8</a></sup></span>
    124                                 <br/>
    125                                 <ul class="Indent">
    126                                         <li>Postsecondary education</li>
    127                                         <li>Higher income</li>
    128                                         <li>Enjoyment of exercise</li>
    129                                         <li>Expectation of benefits</li>
    130                                         <li>Belief in ability to exercise (self-efficacy)</li>
    131                                         <li>History of activity in adulthood</li>
    132                                         <li>Social support from peers, family, or spouse</li>
    133                                         <li>Access to and satisfaction with facilities</li>
    134                                         <li>Enjoyable scenery</li>
    135                                         <li>Safe neighborhoods</li>
    136                                 </ul>
    137                                 <br/>
    138                                 <hr/>
    139                                 <div class="SmallerFont">
    140                                         <a name="ref8"></a>8. Trost SG, Owen N, Bauman AE, et al. Correlates of adults' participation in
    141                                         physical activity: Review and update,1996-2001. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Dec;34(12). As cited in
    142                                         Healthy People 2020 Topics and Objectives, downloaded on 7/11/2014 from
    143                                         <a href="">
    144                               </a>.
    145                                         <br/>
    146                                 </div>
     95                                Many Americans do not have a safe or convenient place to be physically active. Less than half
     96                                of the U.S. population lives within one-half mile of a park. Only 40% of school-aged youth who
     97                                live a mile or less from school report that they usually walk to school.
     98                                <br/><br/>
     99                                More than 21 million U.S. adults 18-64 years have a disability and adults with disabilities
     100                                are three times more likely to have heart disease, stroke, diabetes or cancer than adults
     101                                without disabilities and they are more likely to be inactive. Nationally, 43.0% of adults with
     102                                disabilities are inactive compared to 24.3% of adults without disabilities.
     103                                <br/><br/>
     104                                Older adults are a higher risk for inactivity and not meeting federal activity guidelines
     105                                than younger adults.
    147106                        </CONTENT>
    148107                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
    151110                        <TITLE>How To Reduce Risk</TITLE>
    152111                        <CONTENT>
    153                                 All of us should avoid inactivity. Some physical activity is better than none, and persons who
    154                                 participate in any amount of physical activity gain some health benefits.
    155                                 <br/><br/>
    156                                 In 2008, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines
    157                                 for Americans.<span class="SmallerFont"><sup><a href="#ref9">9</a></sup></span> The Guidelines
    158                                 include recommendations for adults, children and adolescents, and older adults. The Guidelines also
    159                                 provide tips for staying active, and for staying safe during physical activity. Below is a summary of
    160                                 the recommendations for adults. For guidelines for other age groups and special considerations (e.g.,
    161                                 activity for pregnant women) please see the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans,
    162                                 <a href=""></a>
    163                                 <br/><br/>
    164                                 <div class="Note">
    165                                 For substantial health benefits, adults should do at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) a
    166                                 week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity
    167                                 aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, and
    168                                 preferably, it should be spread throughout the week.
    169                                 <br/><br/>
    170                                 For additional and more extensive health benefits, adults should increase their aerobic physical
    171                                 activity to 300 minutes (5 hours) a week of moderate-intensity, or 150 minutes a week of
    172                                 vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and
    173                                 vigorous-intensity activity. Additional health benefits are gained by engaging in physical activity
    174                                 beyond this amount.
    175                                 <br/><br/>
    176                                 Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve
    177                                 all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week, as these activities provide additional health
    178                                 benefits.
    179                                 </div>
    180                                 <br/>
    181                                 <hr/>
    182                                 <div class="SmallerFont">
    183                                         <a name="ref9"></a>9. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Department of Health
    184                                         And Human Services, ODPHP Publication No. U0036, October 2008, downloaded on 7/11/2014 from
    185                                         <a href="">
    186                               </a>.
    187                                 </div>
     112                                The first key guideline for adults is to <span  style="font-weight: bold;">move more and sit less</span>.
     113                                This recommendation is based on new evidence that shows a strong relationship between increased
     114                                sedentary behavior and increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, and all-cause mortality.
     115                                All physical activity, especially moderate-to-vigorous activity, can help offset these risks.
     116                                <br/><br/>
     117                                We now know that <span  style="font-weight: bold;">any amount of physical activity has some health
     118                                benefits</span>. Americans can benefit from small amounts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity
     119                                throughout the day. The first edition of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans stated that
     120                                only 10-minute bouts of physical activity counted toward meeting the guidelines. The second edition
     121                                removes this requirement to encourage Americans to move more frequently throughout the day as they
     122                                work toward meeting the guidelines.
     123                                <br/><br/>
     124                                New evidence shows that physical activity can help <span  style="font-weight: bold;">manage more health
     125                                conditions</span> that Americans already have. For example, physical activity can decrease pain for
     126                                those with osteoarthritis, reduce disease progression for hypertension and type 2 diabetes, reduce
     127                                symptoms of anxiety and depression, and improve cognition for those with dementia, multiple sclerosis,
     128                                ADHD, and Parkinson's disease.
    188129                        </CONTENT>
    189130                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
    192133                        <TITLE>How It's Tracked</TITLE>
    193134                        <CONTENT>
    194                                 Physical activity is tracked at the national and state levels primarily through two surveys:
    195                                 <ul class="Indent">
    196                                         <li>Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
    197                                         Prevention, Adolescent and School Health.</li>
    198                                         <li>Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
    199                                         Prevention, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services.</li>
    200                                 </ul><br/>
    201                                 National information is also tracked through the National Health Interview Survey, National Health
    202                                 Interview Survey (NHIS), CDC/NCHS.
    203                                 <br/><br/>
    204                                 For more information on tracking physical activity health objectives, please visit the Physical
    205                                 Activity topic at <a href="">
    206                       </a>.
     135                                The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) asks detailed physical activity
     136                                questions among adults on odd-numbered years and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)
     137                                tracks physical activity among middle and high school students.
    207138                        </CONTENT>
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    537468                        <CONTENT>
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     472                                                <TITLE>Hawaii Physical Activity and Nutrition Plan, 2013-2020</TITLE>
     473                                                <URL></URL>
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     475                                        <SELECTION>
     476                                                <TITLE>Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition</TITLE>
     477                                                <URL></URL>
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     480                                                <TITLE>Step it up! The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Promote Walking and Walkable Communities</TITLE>
     481                                                <URL></URL>
     482                                        </SELECTION>
     483                                        <SELECTION>
     484                                                <TITLE>2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report</TITLE>
     485                                                <URL></URL>
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     499                                                <TITLE>Hawaii Department of Health Physical Activity and Nutrition Program</TITLE>
     500                                                <URL></URL>
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     503                                                <TITLE>Healthy Hawaii Initiative</TITLE>
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     507                                                <TITLE>CDC Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity</TITLE>
     508                                                <URL></URL>
     509                                        </SELECTION>
     510                                        <SELECTION>
     511                                                <TITLE>NIH National Institute on Aging Exercise and Physical Activity</TITLE>
     512                                                <URL></URL>
     513                                        </SELECTION>
     514                                        <SELECTION>
     515                                                <TITLE>Physical Activity | Facts | Healthy Schools</TITLE>
     516                                                <URL></URL>
     517                                        </SELECTION>
     518                                        <SELECTION>
     519                                                <TITLE>Physical Fitness and Activity in Schools, PEDIATRICS Vol. 105 No. 5 May 2000</TITLE>
     520                                                <URL></URL>
     521                                        </SELECTION>
     522                                        <SELECTION>
     523                                                <TITLE>SHAPE America Sets the Standards for Health and Physical Education in the US</TITLE>
     524                                                <URL></URL>
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    552528                        </CONTENT>
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