source: main/adopters/ut/trunk/src/main/webapps/ibisph-content/xml/epht/topic/html_content/ReproductiveHealthOutcomes.xml @ 17476

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2
3<HTML_CONTENT xmlns:ibis="http://www.ibisph.org">
4<div class="Error">COMMENT: Can we rename this to Reproductive and Birth Outcomes? So we can delete the Vital Statistics file and combine them into one!</div>
5        <ibis:doc>
6                <name>topic/ReproductiveHealthOutcomes</name>
7                <summary>Topic Page</summary>
8                <description>
9                </description>
10
11                <author>Garth Braithwaite</author>
12                <company>Utah Department of Health/Software Technology Group</company>
13        </ibis:doc>
14
15        <TITLE>Reproductive and Birth Outcomes</TITLE>
16
17        <CONTENT>
18                <ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="1">
19                        <TITLE>Description</TITLE>
20                        <CONTENT>
21        Reproductive and birth outcomes track mother and infant health. This includes measures such as sex ratio; infertility; premature births; low birth weight; and fetal, infant, and maternal mortality.
22
23
24                        </CONTENT>
25                        <SHOW/>
26                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
27               
28<ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="1">
29<TITLE>Learn About Reproductive and Birth Outcomes</TITLE>
30<CONTENT>
31
32                <ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="2">
33                        <TITLE>Why Important</TITLE>
34                        <CONTENT>
35        Reproductive and birth outcomes are important because they directly affect the mother and child's health. In 2016, 1 in 10 babies was born prematurely in the United States. In 2015, preterm births and low birth weight
36        accounted for 17% of all infant deaths. Despite the United States' medical technology and level of development, it ranked among the top ten countries with the highest number of preterm births alongside Bangladesh and
37        Indonesia. Adverse reproductive health outcomes can greatly impact a child's survival and health throughout the rest of his or her life. Because the fetus is vulnerable during pregnancy, environmental toxins and exposures
38        can affect the fetus before birth. However, environmental exposures may not always be the direct cause of poor reproductive and birth outcomes; many other factors, like access to healthcare, can play a role as well.
39
40
41
42
43                        </CONTENT>
44                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
45
46                <ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="2">
47                        <TITLE>What is Known</TITLE>
48                        <CONTENT>
49
50
51<span Class="Bold">Infant mortality</span> refers to all infant death before one year of age.
52<br></br><br></br> 
53<span Class="Bold">Postneonatal mortality </span> refers to infant death between the ages of 28 days and 1 year.
54<br></br><br></br>
55<span Class="Bold">Neonatal mortality </span> refers to death before 28 days of life.
56<br></br><br></br>
57<span Class="Bold">Perinatal mortality</span> refers to infant death under age seven days and fetal deaths at 24 weeks of pregnancy or more.
58<br></br><br></br>
59<span Class="Bold">Fetal deaths </span> are those at, at least 24 weeks of pregnancy.
60<br></br><br></br> 
61Outdoor <a href="http://epht.health.utah.gov/epht-view/topic/AirQuality.html" target="_blank"> air pollution </a> (particulate matter that is 10 micrometers long [PM10]) has been associated with a higher risk of infant death,
62specifically from respiratory causes and <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/SIDS/" target="_blank">Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)</a>.
63<br></br><br></br>
64<span Class="Bold">Maternal mortality</span> refers to the death of a woman while she is pregnant or within 42 hours of giving birth and where the cause of death is related to the pregnancy itself.
65<br></br><br></br>
66<span Class="Bold">Preterm birth</span> is the leading cause of death of newborn babies. A baby is considered preterm if he or she is born before the 37th week of pregnancy. Preterm birth increases the risk of many health problems such as intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, breathing problems, vision and hearing loss, and feeding and digestive problems. Many of these problems can be a lifelong issue for the child. It is important to remember that every birth is different and many preterm babies do not have any serious health complications.
67<br></br><br></br>
68<span Class="Bold">Low birth weight</span> refers to newborn babies that weigh less than 5.5 pounds (2500 grams) at birth. Low-birth weight can make it easier for the baby to get sick or infected and can delay motor skills, social development, and learning ability. 
69<br></br><br></br>
70<span Class="Bold">Infertility</span> refers to the inability to have children and it can affect both men and women. Risk factors for infertility include certain medical conditions and waiting to have children until later in life. However, a growing body of literature suggests that environmental contaminants such as <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/Phthalates_FactSheet.html" target="_blank"> phthalates</a>, <a href="https://www.epa.gov/pcbs/learn-about-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs" target="_blank"> PCB </a> (polychlorinated biphenyls), <a href= "https://www.epa.gov/dioxin/learn-about-dioxin" target="_blank"> dioxins</a>, and <a href="https://www.epa.gov/pesticides/pesticides-and-public-health" target="_blank"> pesticides </a> can lead to infertility too.
71<br></br><br></br>
72<span Class="Bold">Sex ratio</span> is the numbers of male babies to the number of female babies; the expected sex birth ratio is 105 males to 100 females. Because population growth is in part related to the number of males, it is important to track sex ratio and understand trends.
73                        </CONTENT>
74                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
75
76                <ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="2">
77                        <TITLE>Who is at Risk</TITLE>
78
79
80                        <CONTENT>
81        Factors such as parents' age, genetics, medical health, socioeconomic status, behavior, diet, access to health care, and environmental exposures can all play a role in reproductive and birth outcomes. The following factors increase a woman's risk of poor reproductive and birth outcomes:
82<ul>
83<li>Environmental exposures such as secondhand smoke, <a href="http://www.health.utah.gov/utahair/birthoutcomes/" target="_blank">air pollution</a>, biocides (i.e., a chemical that destroys life by poisoning, especially a pesticide, herbicide, or fungicide), <a href= "http://epht.health.utah.gov/epht-view/topic/Mercury.html" target="_blank"> mercury </a> and <a href="http://epht.health.utah.gov/epht-view/topic/ChildhoodBloodLead.html" target="_blank"> lead </a></li>
84<li>Behaviors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, and using illicit drugs</li>
85<li>Medical conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, blood clotting disorders, and cervical or uterine problems </li>
86<li>Social and economic factors like domestic violence, stress, lack of social support, and marital status</li>
87
88</ul>
89
90</CONTENT>
91                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
92
93                <ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="2">
94                        <TITLE>How to Reduce Risk</TITLE>
95                        <CONTENT>
96Women can reduce their risk of negative reproductive and birth outcomes by getting prenatal care before becoming pregnant and <span Class="Bold">avoiding</span> the following:
97<ul>
98<li>Tobacco smoke</li>
99<li>High concentrations of particulate matter in the air</li>
100<li>Alcohol</li>
101<li>Illicit drugs</li>
102<li>Biocides (pesticide, rodentcide, fungicide, herbicide, etc.)</li>
103<li><a href="http://epht.health.utah.gov/epht-view/topic/ChildhoodBloodLead.html" target="_blank"> Lead </a></li>
104<li><a href= "http://epht.health.utah.gov/epht-view/topic/Mercury.html" target="_blank"> Mercury </a></li>
105</ul>
106
107                        </CONTENT>
108                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
109               
110                        <ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="2">
111                        <TITLE>FAQs and Resources</TITLE>
112                        <CONTENT>
113                <h4>Resources</h4>
114                <ul>
115                <li><a href="http://www.health.utah.gov/utahair/birthoutcomes/" target="_blank">Air Pollution and Adverse Birth Outcomes - Utah Environmental Epidemiology Program</a></li>
116                <li><a href="http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/" target="_blank">Reproductive Health information - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention</a></li>
117                </ul>
118                <br/>
119                <h4>Program Websites</h4>
120                <ul>
121                <li> Utah Department of Health - <a href="http://health.utah.gov/mihp" target="_blank">Maternal and Infant Health Program</a></li>
122                </ul>
123
124                        </CONTENT>
125                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
126</CONTENT>
127</ibis:ExpandableContent>
128               
129<ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="1">
130<TITLE>Explore Reproductive and Birth Outcomes Data</TITLE>
131<CONTENT>
132
133                <ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="2">
134                        <TITLE>Data tables, charts, and more detailed information</TITLE>
135                        <CONTENT> <!---->
136
137<ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="3">
138<TITLE>Birth Rates</TITLE>
139<CONTENT>
140<h3>Indicator Reports (includes contextual information)</h3>
141
142<ibis:SelectionsList>
143<SELECTION>
144<TITLE>Birth Rates, Utah and U.S.</TITLE>
145<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/BrthRat.UT_US.html</LOCAL_URL>
146</SELECTION>
147
148<SELECTION>
149<TITLE>Birth Rate by Age</TITLE>
150<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/BrthRat.Age.html</LOCAL_URL>
151</SELECTION>
152
153<SELECTION>
154<TITLE>Birth Rates by Local Health Department</TITLE>
155<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/BrthRat.LHD.html</LOCAL_URL>
156</SELECTION>
157
158<SELECTION>
159<TITLE>Birth Rates by Utah Small Area</TITLE>
160<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/BrthRat.SA.html</LOCAL_URL>
161</SELECTION>
162
163</ibis:SelectionsList>
164</CONTENT>
165</ibis:ExpandableContent>
166
167<ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="3">
168<TITLE>Fertility</TITLE>
169<CONTENT>
170<h3>Indicator Reports (includes contextual information)</h3>
171<ibis:SelectionsList>
172
173<SELECTION>                                     
174<TITLE>Total Fertility Rate per 1000 women of reproductive age, Utah and U.S.</TITLE>                   
175<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/FertRat.UT_US_Age.html</LOCAL_URL>
176</SELECTION>   
177
178<SELECTION>
179<TITLE>Fertility Rates by Age</TITLE>
180<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/FertRat.Age.html</LOCAL_URL>
181</SELECTION>
182
183<SELECTION>
184<TITLE>General Fertility Rates by Local Health Department</TITLE>
185<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/FertRat.LHD.html</LOCAL_URL>
186</SELECTION>
187
188<SELECTION>
189<TITLE>General Fertility Rates by Utah Small Areas</TITLE>
190<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/FertRat.SA.html</LOCAL_URL>
191</SELECTION>
192</ibis:SelectionsList>
193<br/>
194
195<h3>Additional Data Views</h3>
196<ul>
197<li>Total Fertility Rate per 1,000 Women of Reproductive Age: <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/fertility_annual_state.html">Statewide</a> and <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/fertility_annual_county.html">by County</a> </li>
198</ul>
199</CONTENT>
200</ibis:ExpandableContent>
201
202<ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="3">
203<TITLE>Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight</TITLE>
204<CONTENT>
205
206<h4>Low Birth Weight (Less Than 2,500 Grams At Birth)</h4>
207<h5>Indicator Reports (includes contextual information)</h5>
208<ibis:SelectionsList>
209
210<SELECTION>
211<TITLE>Low Birth Weight by County</TITLE>
212<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/LBW.Cnty.html</LOCAL_URL>
213</SELECTION>
214
215<SELECTION>
216<TITLE>Low Birth Weight by Ethnicity</TITLE>
217<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/LBW.Eth.html</LOCAL_URL>
218</SELECTION>
219
220<SELECTION>
221<TITLE>Low Birth Weight by Race</TITLE>
222<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/LBW.Race.html</LOCAL_URL>
223</SELECTION>
224
225<SELECTION>
226<TITLE>Low Birth Weight by Local Health Department</TITLE>
227<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/LBW.LHD.html</LOCAL_URL>
228</SELECTION>
229
230<SELECTION>
231<TITLE>Low Birth Weight by Utah Small Areas</TITLE>
232<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/LBW.SA.html</LOCAL_URL>
233</SELECTION>
234
235<SELECTION>
236<TITLE>Low Birth Weight by Year, Utah and U.S.</TITLE>
237<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/LBW.Ut_USYear.html</LOCAL_URL>
238</SELECTION>
239</ibis:SelectionsList>
240<br/>
241<h5>Additional Data Views</h5>
242<ul>
243<li>Percent of Low Birth Weight Births: <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/lowbw_annual_state.html">Statewide</a> and <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/lowbw_annual_county.html">by County</a>  </li>
244</ul>
245<br/>
246<h4>Very Low Birth Weight (Less Than 1,500 Grams At Birth) </h4>
247<h5>Additional Data Views</h5>
248<ul>
249<li>Percent of Very Low Birth Weight Births: <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/verylowbw_5yr_state.html">Statewide</a> and <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/verylowbw_5yr_county.html">by County</a>  </li>
250</ul>
251
252</CONTENT>
253</ibis:ExpandableContent>
254
255<ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="3">
256<TITLE>Mortality (Fetal, Infant, Neonatal, and Post Neonatal)</TITLE>
257<CONTENT>
258<h3>Indicator Reports (includes contextual information)</h3>
259<br/>
260<h4>Fetal Mortality</h4>
261<ibis:SelectionsList>
262
263<SELECTION>
264<TITLE>Utah Perinatal Mortality Rate by Year</TITLE>
265<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/FetMort.Peri_State.html</LOCAL_URL>
266</SELECTION>
267
268<SELECTION>
269<TITLE>Fetal Mortality Rate by Local Health Department</TITLE>
270<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/FetMort.LHD.html</LOCAL_URL>
271</SELECTION>
272
273<SELECTION>                                     
274<TITLE>Fetal Mortality Rate, Utah and U.S.</TITLE>                                     
275<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/FetMort.UT_US.html</LOCAL_URL>
276</SELECTION>
277</ibis:SelectionsList>
278<br/>
279<h5>Additional Data Views</h5> 
280<ul>
281<li><a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/DeathPeri5yr_State.html">Fetal Mortality Rate, Statewide, by 5 Year Group</a></li>
282<li><a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/DeathPeri5yr_County.html">Fetal Mortality Rate, by County, by 5 Year Group</a></li>
283</ul>
284
285<br/>
286
287<h4>Infant Mortality</h4>
288<ibis:SelectionsList>
289
290<SELECTION>
291<TITLE>Infant Mortality: Deaths at Under 1 Year of Age, Utah and U.S.</TITLE>
292<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/InfMort.Ut_USYear.html</LOCAL_URL>
293</SELECTION>
294
295<SELECTION>
296<TITLE>Deaths at Under 1 Year of Age per 1,000 Live Births by County</TITLE>
297<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/InfMort.Cnty.html</LOCAL_URL>
298</SELECTION>
299
300<SELECTION>
301<TITLE>Infant Mortality by Local Health Department</TITLE>
302<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/InfMort.LHD.html</LOCAL_URL>
303</SELECTION>
304
305<SELECTION>
306<TITLE>Deaths at Under 1 Year of Age per 1,000 Live Births by Utah Small Areas</TITLE>
307<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/InfMort.SA.html</LOCAL_URL>
308</SELECTION>
309
310<SELECTION>
311<TITLE>Infant Mortality Average Rate by Year Groups</TITLE>
312<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/InfMort.YrGp.html</LOCAL_URL>
313</SELECTION>
314
315</ibis:SelectionsList>
316<br/>
317<h5>Additional Data Views</h5>
318<li>Average Infant Mortality Rate (less than 1 year of age) per 1,000 Live Births: <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/infmort_5yr_state.html">Statewide</a> and <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/infmort_5yr_county.html">by County</a> </li>
319<br/>
320
321<h4>Neonatal and Post Neonatal Mortality</h4>
322<ul>
323<li>Average Neonatal Mortality Rate (less than 28 days of age) per 1,000 Live Births: <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/neomort_5yr_state.html">Statewide</a> and <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/neomort_5yr_county.html">by County</a> </li>
324<li>Average Post-Neonatal Mortality Rate (equal to or greater than 28 days to 1 year of age) per 1,000 Live Births: <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/postneonatal_5yr_state.html">Statewide</a> and <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/postneonatal_5yr_county.html">by County</a></li>
325</ul>
326</CONTENT>
327</ibis:ExpandableContent>
328
329<ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="3">
330<TITLE>Prematurity (Preterm and Very Preterm Birth)</TITLE>
331<CONTENT>
332<h3>Indicator Reports (includes contextual information)</h3>
333<br/>
334<h4>Preterm Birth (Less Than 37 Weeks Gestation)</h4>
335<ibis:SelectionsList>
336<SELECTION>
337<TITLE>Preterm Births, Utah and U.S.</TITLE>
338<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/PreBir.UT_US.html</LOCAL_URL>
339</SELECTION>
340
341<SELECTION>
342<TITLE>Preterm Births, by Ethnicity</TITLE>
343<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/PreBir.Eth.html</LOCAL_URL>
344</SELECTION>
345
346<SELECTION>
347<TITLE>Preterm Births, by Race</TITLE>
348<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/PreBir.Race.html</LOCAL_URL>
349</SELECTION>
350
351<SELECTION>
352<TITLE>Preterm Births, by Local Health Department</TITLE>
353<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/PreBir.LHD.html</LOCAL_URL>
354</SELECTION>
355
356<SELECTION>
357<TITLE>Preterm Births, by County</TITLE>
358<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/PreBir.Cnty.html</LOCAL_URL>
359</SELECTION>
360
361<SELECTION>
362<TITLE>Preterm Births, by Utah Small Areas</TITLE>
363<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/PreBir.SA.html</LOCAL_URL>
364</SELECTION>
365
366</ibis:SelectionsList>
367<br/>
368<h5>Additional Data Views</h5>
369<ul>
370<li>Percent of Preterm Births: <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/preterm_annual_state.html">Statewide</a> and <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/preterm_annual_county.html">by County</a> </li>
371</ul>
372<br/>
373
374<h4>Very Preterm Birth (Less than 32 Weeks Gestation)</h4>
375<ul>
376<li>Percent of Very Preterm Births: <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/verypreterm_5yr_state.html">Statewide</a> and <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/verypreterm_5yr_county.html">by County</a> </li>
377</ul>
378
379</CONTENT>
380</ibis:ExpandableContent>
381
382<ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="3">
383<TITLE>Sex Ratio at Birth</TITLE>
384<CONTENT>
385<h3>Indicator Reports (includes contextual information)</h3>
386<ibis:SelectionsList>
387
388<SELECTION>
389<TITLE>Male to Female sex ratio at birth (term singletons only)</TITLE> 
390<LOCAL_URL>indicator/view/SexRatBrth.Year.html</LOCAL_URL>
391</SELECTION>
392</ibis:SelectionsList>
393<br/>
394
395<h3>Additional Data Views</h3>
396<ul>
397<li>Male to Female Sex Ratio at Birth: <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/sexratio_annual_state.html">Statewide</a> and <a ibis:href="query/definition/result/utahepht/sexratio_annual_county.html">by County</a>   </li>
398</ul>
399
400</CONTENT>
401</ibis:ExpandableContent>
402</CONTENT>
403</ibis:ExpandableContent>
404
405<ibis:ExpandableContent>
406<TITLE>Custom Data Queries</TITLE>
407<CONTENT>
408<h3>Birth Query Module</h3>
409<ul>
410<li><a href="http://epht.health.utah.gov/epht-view/query/selection/birth/BirthSelection.html">Birth - includes Count, Adolescent Births, Prenatal Care, Infant Birth Weight, and Pre-term Births</a></li>
411</ul>
412<br/>
413<h3>Fetal Mortality Query Module</h3>
414<ul>
415<li><a href="http://epht.health.utah.gov/epht-view/query/selection/fetmort/FetMortSelection.html">Fetal Mortality</a></li>
416</ul>
417<br/>
418<h3>Infant Mortality Query Module</h3>
419<ul>
420<li><a href="http://epht.health.utah.gov/epht-view/query/selection/infmort/InfMortSelection.html">Infant Mortality - includes Infant, Neonatal, and Post-neonatal Rates and Infant Mortality Rates by Major Causes</a></li>
421</ul>
422<br/>
423Click here to view all available <a href="http://epht.health.utah.gov/epht-view/dataportal/PublicDatasetIndex.html">public queries</a> and metadata for all <a href="http://epht.health.utah.gov/epht-view/dataportal/SecureDatasetIndex.html">secure portal queries</a>.
424</CONTENT>
425</ibis:ExpandableContent>
426
427                <ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="2">
428                        <TITLE>About the Data</TITLE>
429                        <CONTENT>
430The Utah EPHT Network receives reproductive and birth outcome data from the Office of Vital Records and Statistics in the Utah Department of Health.
431<br/><br/>
432        <a ibis:href="metadata/VRBirths.html">View complete metadata.</a>
433                        </CONTENT>
434                </ibis:ExpandableContent>
435</CONTENT>
436</ibis:ExpandableContent>
437
438<ibis:ExpandableContent titleLevel="1">
439<TITLE>Utah Health Assessments involving Reproductive and Birth Outcomes </TITLE>
440<CONTENT>
441
442The links listed below redirect you to health assessments that have been conducted in Utah that are relevant to reproductive and birth outcomes. The Utah APPLETREE program at the Utah Department of Health is responsible for evaluating and responding to environmental public health issues in Utah. For more information, please visit the <a href="http://health.utah.gov/enviroepi/appletree/" target="_blank">Utah APPLETREE website</a>.
443<br/><br/>
444<ul>
445<li><a href="http://health.utah.gov/enviroepi/appletree/TriCountyABO/" target="_blank">TriCounty Adverse Birth Outcomes Statistical Review (Industrial and mining activities), Uintah, Duchesne, and Dagget Counties, 2015 </a></li>
446</ul>
447
448</CONTENT> 
449</ibis:ExpandableContent>
450
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453        </CONTENT>
454</HTML_CONTENT>
455
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