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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
3<HTML_CONTENT xmlns:ibis="">
5        <TITLE>Cardiovascular Screening</TITLE>
6        <HTML_CLASS>Topic</HTML_CLASS>
9                <link   ibis:href="css/Topic.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/>
12        <CONTENT>
14                <figure>
15                        <img ibis:src="view/image/topic/hero/CardiovascularScreening.png"/>
16                        <figcaption>
17                                According to the American Heart Association, recommended cardiovascular screening
18                                includes monitoring of blood pressure, blood lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides),
19                                body weight, blood glucose, smoking, physical activity, and diet.
20                        </figcaption>
21                </figure>
23                <div id="contentSections">
24                        <section class="Container">
25                                <h2>Why It's Important</h2>
26                                <p>
27                                The key to preventing cardiovascular disease, also called coronary artery
28                                disease (CAD), is managing your risk factors, such as high blood pressure,
29                                high total cholesterol or high blood glucose. But how do you know which
30                                risk factors you have? The best way to find out is through screening
31                                tests during
32                                <a href="#ref1" id="" aria-describedby="footnote-label">regular doctor visits.</a>
33                                </p>
34                                <footer class="Footnotes"><ol>
35                                        <li id="ref1"> <a href="">
36                                                American Heart Association, Heart Health Screenings.</a> Downloaded 2/10/2015
37                                        <a href="" aria-label="Back to content">«</a></li>
38                                </ol></footer>
39                        </section>
41                        <section class="Container">
42                                <h2>What Is Known</h2>
44                                <h4>Blood Pressure</h4>
45                                <p>
46                                Blood pressure is one of the most important screenings because high blood pressure
47                                usually has no symptoms so it can't be detected without being measured. High blood
48                                pressure greatly increases your risk of heart disease and stroke. If your blood pressure
49                                is below 120/80 mm Hg, be sure to get it checked at least once every two years,
50                                starting at age 20. If your blood pressure is higher, your doctor may want to check
51                                it more often. High blood pressure can be controlled through lifestyle changes or
52                                medication. After age 65, women have a higher risk of high blood pressure than men,
53                                and African-American adults of all ages have a higher-than-average risk.
54                                </p>
56                                <h4>Fasting Lipoprotein Profile (cholesterol and triglycerides)</h4>
57                                <p>
58                                You should have a fasting lipoprotein profile taken every four to six years, starting
59                                at age 20. This is a blood test that measures total cholesterol, LDL (bad) cholesterol,
60                                HDL (good) cholesterol and triglycerides. (Learn more about cholesterol and triglyceride
61                                levels.) You may need to be tested more frequently if your healthcare provider determines
62                                that you're at an increased risk for heart disease or stroke.
63                                </p>
65                                <p>
66                                Older women tend to have higher triglyceride levels than men. Like high blood pressure,
67                                often cholesterol and triglycerides can be controlled through lifestyle changes or
68                                medication.
69                                </p>
71                                <h4>Body Weight</h4> 
72                                <p>
73                                Starting around 20 years old, your healthcare provider may ask for your waist circumference
74                                or use your body weight to calculate your body mass index (BMI) during your routine visit.
75                                These measurements may tell you and your physician whether you're at a healthy body weight
76                                and composition. About two of every three adults are now overweight or obese. Being obese
77                                puts you at higher risk for health problems such as heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure,
78                                diabetes, and more.
79                                </p>
81                                <h4>Blood Glucose</h4>
82                                <p>
83                                Starting at age 45, you should have your blood glucose level checked at least every three
84                                years. High blood glucose levels put you at greater risk of developing insulin resistance,
85                                prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Untreated diabetes can lead to many serious medical problems
86                                including heart disease and stroke. If you're overweight AND you have at least one additional
87                                cardiovascular risk factor, your doctor may recommend a blood glucose test even if you're not
88                                yet 45, or more frequently than every 3 years.
89                                </p>
91                                <h4>Smoking, Physical Activity, Diet</h4>
92                                <p>
93                                Smoking is the most important preventable cause of premature death in the United States. If
94                                you smoke, tell your doctor at your next healthcare visit. If you smoke, your doctor can suggest
95                                approaches to help quit. Also discuss your diet and physical activity habits. If there's room
96                                for improvement in your diet and daily physical activity levels, ask your doctor to provide helpful
97                                suggestions.
98                                </p>
99                        </section>
101                        <section class="Container">
102                                <h2>How To Reduce Risk</h2>
103                                <h4>Major Risk Factors That Can't Be <a href="#ref1" id="" aria-describedby="footnote-label">Changed</a></h4>
104                                <ul class="Indent">
105                                        <li>Increasing Age: About 80 percent of people who die of coronary heart disease are 65 or older.</li>
106                                        <li>Male Sex (Gender): Men have a greater risk of heart attack than women do, and they have attacks earlier in life.</li>
107                                        <li>Heredity (Including Race): Children of parents with heart disease are more likely to develop it themselves.</li>
108                                </ul>
110                                <h4>Major Risk Factors That Can Be Modified, Treated or Controlled</h4>
111                                <ul class="Indent">
112                                        <li>Tobacco Smoke: Smokers' risk of developing coronary heart disease is 2-4 times that of nonsmokers.</li>
113                                        <li>High Blood Cholesterol: As LDL rises, so does risk of coronary heart disease.</li>
114                                        <li>High Blood Pressure: High blood pressure increases the heart's workload, causing the arteries to thicken and become stiffer.</li>
115                                        <li>Physical Inactivity: An inactive lifestyle is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. </li>
116                                        <li>Obesity and Overweight: People who have excess body fat - especially at the waist - are more likely to develop heart disease and stroke.</li>
117                                        <li>Diabetes: Diabetes increases your risk of developing cardiovascular disease.</li>
118                                </ul>
120                                <h4>Other Factors To Consider</h4>
121                                <ul class="Indent">
122                                        <li>Stress: Individual response to stress may be a contributing factor.</li>
123                                        <li>Alcohol: If you drink, limit your alcohol consumption to no more than two drinks per day for men and no more than
124                                                one drink per day for women. Heavy drinking can increase risk of high blood pressure, obesity, stroke and other diseases.</li>
125                                        <li>Diet and Nutrition: A healthy diet is one of the best weapons you have to fight cardiovascular disease.</li>
126                                </ul>
127                        </section>
129                        <section class="Container">
130                                <h2>How It's Tracked</h2>
131                                <ul class="Indent">
132                                        <li>Screening and Prevalence: The <a href="">Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System</a> 
133                                        (BRFSS) monitors the use of preventive screening for a variety of cardiovascular disease risk and
134                                        protective factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking and exercise. The BRFSS
135                                        also tracks prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart attack and stroke.</li>
136                                        <li>Morbidity: The <a href="">Hospital Inpatient
137                                        Discharge Data</a> system monitors inpatient hospital discharges, including hospitalization for heart
138                                        disease and related conditions.</li>
139                                        <li>Mortality: <a href="">Death certificates</a> are a fundamental
140                                        source of demographic, geographic, and cause-of-death information. They make it possible to track
141                                        every death in the nation due to cardiovascular disease.  Deaths are reported as being due to
142                                        cardiovascular disease when the cardiovascular disease was the underlying cause of death.</li>
143                                </ul>
144                        </section>
145                </div>
147                <nav class="Aside">
148<h1>                    LOIS TODO: comment out if no IPs otherwise need to likely fix the name?</h1>
149                        <ibis:SelectionsContentBlock id="ipSelections" topicName="CardiovascularScreening"/>
151                        <ibis:SelectionsContentBlock id="querySelections">
152                                <CONTENT>
153                                        <div class="Selections">
154                                                <ibis:SelectionsList xmlns:ibis="">
155                                                        <SELECTION>
156                                                                <TITLE>Current Doctor-Diagnosed High Blood Pressure</TITLE>
157                                                                <LOCAL_URL>query/result/brfss/DXBPHigh/DXBPHighCrude11_.html</LOCAL_URL>
158                                                        </SELECTION>
159                                                        <SELECTION>
160                                                                <TITLE>Cholesterol Test in Past 5 Years</TITLE>
161                                                                <LOCAL_URL>query/result/brfss/CholChk5Yr/CholChk5YrCrude11_.html</LOCAL_URL>
162                                                        </SELECTION>
163                                                        <SELECTION>
164                                                                <TITLE>Current Doctor-Diagnosed High Blood Cholesterol (Persons who had a cholesterol check)</TITLE>
165                                                                <LOCAL_URL>query/result/brfss/DXCholHigh/DXCholHighCrude11_.html</LOCAL_URL>
166                                                        </SELECTION>
167                                                        <SELECTION>
168                                                                <TITLE>Dr. Diagnosed Angina or Coronary Heart Disease</TITLE>
169                                                                <LOCAL_URL>query/result/brfss/DXCVD_CHD/DXCVD_CHDCrude11_.html</LOCAL_URL>
170                                                        </SELECTION>
171                                                        <SELECTION>
172                                                                <TITLE>Dr. Diagnosed Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)</TITLE>
173                                                                <LOCAL_URL>query/result/brfss/DXCVDHeartAttack/DXCVDHeartAttackCrude11_.html</LOCAL_URL>
174                                                        </SELECTION>
175                                                        <SELECTION>
176                                                                <TITLE>Dr. Diagnosed Stroke</TITLE>
177                                                                <LOCAL_URL>query/result/brfss/DXCVDStroke/DXCVDStrokeCrude11_.html</LOCAL_URL>
178                                                        </SELECTION>
179                                                </ibis:SelectionsList>
180                                        </div>
181                                        <button>Show All</button>
182                                </CONTENT>
183                        </ibis:SelectionsContentBlock>
184                </nav>
185        </CONTENT>
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