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2
3<HTML_CONTENT xmlns:ibis="http://www.ibisph.org">
4
5        <HTML_CLASS>Topic Newsroom</HTML_CLASS>
6        <OTHER_HEAD_CONTENT>
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10                <link href="css/_SiteSpecific-Topic.css"
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29
30        <CONTENT>
31                <header>
32                        <img src="contentfile/image/resource/learn.png"
33                                title="NM EPHT Glossary"/>
34                        <h1>NM EPHT Glossary</h1>
35                </header>
36
37                <section id="top">
38                        <h2>Epidemiology and Public Health Terms</h2>
39                        <p>The NM EPHT program applies principles of various aspects of population health: epidemiology and response; public and community health; health education and health promotion; and environmental public health.
40                                This glossary includes terms and acronyms commonly used on this site, our publications, and communication products.
41                        </p>
42
43                        <div>
44                                <h4>Index:</h4>
45                                <a ibis:hash="9">9</a>
46                                <a ibis:hash="A">A</a>
47                                <a ibis:hash="B">B</a>
48                                <a ibis:hash="C">C</a>
49                                <a ibis:hash="D">D</a>
50                                <a ibis:hash="E">E</a>
51                                <a ibis:hash="F">F</a>
52                                <a ibis:hash="G">G</a>
53                                <a ibis:hash="H">H</a>
54                                <a ibis:hash="I">I</a>
55                                <a ibis:hash="J">J</a>
56                                <a ibis:hash="K">K</a>
57                                <a ibis:hash="L">L</a>
58                                <a ibis:hash="M">M</a>
59                                <a ibis:hash="N">N</a>
60                                <a ibis:hash="O">O</a>
61                                <a ibis:hash="P">P</a>
62                                <a ibis:hash="Q">Q</a>
63                                <a ibis:hash="R">R</a>
64                                <a ibis:hash="S">S</a>
65                                <a ibis:hash="T">T</a>
66                                <a ibis:hash="U">U</a>
67                                <a ibis:hash="V">V</a>
68                                <a ibis:hash="W">W</a>
69                                <a ibis:hash="X">X</a>
70                                <a ibis:hash="Y">Y</a>
71                                <a ibis:hash="Z">Z</a>
72                        </div>
73
74
75                        <h3 id="A">A <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
76                        <h4>Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI)</h4>
77                        <p>The medical name for a heart attack. A heart attack is a life-threatening condition that occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle is abruptly cut off, causing tissue damage. This is usually the result of a blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. 
78                        </p>
79
80                        <h4> Allergies</h4>
81                        <p>Also called seasonal allergies and  hay fever, the onset of symptoms resulting from on-going exposure to pollen that occurs when a person is allergic to pollen or other allergens such as animal dander and dust mites.
82                                        Often people are allergic to multiple types of pollen such as juniper and ragweed. 
83                        </p>
84
85                        <h4>Arsenic</h4>
86                        <p>A naturally occurring element in the earth's crust. It is widely distributed throughout rocks and soil.
87                                        It can also be released into the environment from agricultural and industrial activities, such as copper and lead smelting, and wood treatments.
88                        </p>
89
90                        <h4>Air Quality</h4>
91                        <p>The degree to which the ambient air is pollution-free, assessed by measuring several indicators of pollution.
92                        </p>
93
94                        <h4>Air Quality Index (AQI)</h4>
95                        <p>The AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you.
96                                        The AQI focuses on health affects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air.
97                                        EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, particle pollution (also known as particulate matter), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.
98                        </p>
99
100                        <h4>Assessment</h4>
101                        <p>The evaluation or estimation of the nature, quality, or ability of someone or something.
102                        </p>
103
104                        <h4>Attack Rate</h4>
105                        <p>The application or practice of epidemiology to control and prevent health problems.
106                        </p>
107
108                        <h4>Applied Epidemiology</h4>
109                        <p>A form of incidence that measures the proportion of persons in a population who experience an acute health event during a limited period
110                                        (e.g., during an outbreak), calculated as the number of new cases of a health problem during an outbreak divided by the size of the population at
111                                        the beginning of the period, usually expressed as a percentage or per 1,000 or 100,000 population (see also incidence proportion).
112                        </p>
113
114                        <h4>Asthma</h4>
115                        <p>A disease that affects the airways that carry air in and out of the lungs.
116                        </p>
117
118
119
120                        <h3 id="B">B <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
121                        <h4>Biomonitoring</h4>
122                        <p>The assessment of exposure through direct measurement of environmental chemicals in human specimens, such as blood or urine.
123                        </p>
124
125                        <h4>Birth Defects</h4>
126                        <p>Birth defects are conditions that happens to a baby while the baby is developing in the mother's body most occurring during the first three months of pregnancy. 
127                        </p>
128
129                        <h4>Birth Rate, Crude</h4>
130                        <p>The number of live births during a specified period divided by the mid-period population, usually expressed per 1,000 population.
131                        </p>
132
133                        <h4>Blue-green Algae</h4>
134                        <p>Also called cyanobacteria and pond scum, microscopic organisms found naturally in all types of water, including fresh, brackish (combined salt and  fresh water), marine water, and slow-moving streams  when water is warm and stagnant.
135                                        Ingestion can have potential health effects. 
136                        </p>
137
138                        <h4>BRACE Model</h4>
139                        <p>Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE).
140                                        The framework from CDC is a five-step process that allows health officials to develop strategies and programs to help communities prepare for the health effects of climate change.
141                        </p>
142
143
144
145                        <h3 id="C">C <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
146                        <h4>Cancer</h4>
147                        <p>The name given to a collection of related diseases that start when some of the body's cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues.
148                        </p>
149
150                        <h4>Cancer Concerns Work Group</h4>
151                        <p>The New Mexico Cancer Concerns Work Group responds to concerns from the public, health professionals, or other concerned people, about cancers among a specified group of people, such as in a community or a workplace. 
152                        </p>
153
154                        <h4>Carbon Monoxide (CO)</h4>
155                        <p>A highly toxic gas which you cannot see, smell, or taste it. Breathing high levels of carbon monoxide can cause sudden illness or death.
156                        </p>
157
158                        <h4>Case Definition</h4>
159                        <p>A set of uniformly applied criteria for determining whether a person should be identified as having a particular disease, injury, or other health condition.
160                                        In epidemiology, particularly for an outbreak investigation, a case definition specifies clinical criteria and details of time, place, and person.
161                        </p>
162
163                        <h4>Cause of Disease</h4>
164                        <p>A factor (e.g., characteristic, behavior, or event) that directly influences the occurrence of a disease. Reducing such a factor among a population should reduce occurrence of the disease.
165                        </p>
166
167                        <h4>CDC</h4>
168                        <p> Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
169                        </p>
170
171                        <h4>Census</h4>
172                        <p>The enumeration of an entire population, usually including details on residence, age, sex, occupation, racial/ethnic group, marital status, birth history, and relationship to the head of household.
173                        </p>
174
175                        <h4>Census Block</h4>
176                        <p> The smallest geographic entity for which the U.S. Census Bureau tabulates decennial census data.
177                                        Many blocks correspond to city blocks bounded by streets, but blocks in rural areas may include
178                                        several square miles and have some boundaries that are not streets.
179                        </p>
180
181                        <h4> Census Block Group</h4>
182                        <p>  A unit of U.S. census geography that is a combination of census blocks. There are about
183                                        700 residents per block group. A block group is a subdivision of a census tract.
184                        </p>
185
186                        <h4> Census Tract</h4>
187                        <p> A census tract is a combination of census block groups small, statistical subdivision of a county that usually includes approximately 4,000 inhabitants, but which may
188                                        include from 2,500 to 8,000 inhabitants. A census tract is designed to encompass a population with relatively uniform
189                                        economic status, living conditions, and some demographic characteristics. Tract boundaries normally follow physical
190                                        features, but may also follow administrative boundaries or other non-physical features.
191                        </p>
192
193                        <h4>Characterize</h4>
194                        <p>Descriptive epidemiology of health events by time, place, and person.
195                        </p>
196
197                        <h4>CHES</h4>
198                        <p> Certified Health Education Specialist. A designation signifying an individual has met required academic qualifications, passed a rigourous competency-based examination, and who satisfies the continuing education requirement to maintain the national credential.
199                                        Competencies include program assessment, planning, evaluation, administration, communication, and advocacy.
200                        </p>
201
202                        <h4>Climate</h4>
203                        <p>The average weather in a place over many years.
204                        </p>
205
206                        <h4>Climate Adaptation</h4>
207                        <p>Ways individuals, communities, organizations and natural systems can adjust to sudden. Extreme, and gradual changes in the climate. It involves taking practical actions to manage risks from climate impacts, protect communities and strengthen the resilience of the economy.
208                        </p>
209
210                        <h4>Cluster</h4>
211                        <p>An aggregation of cases of a disease, injury, or other health condition (particularly cancer and birth defects) in a circumscribed area during a particular period without regard to whether the number of cases is more than expected (often the expected number is not known). 
212                        </p>
213
214                        <h4> Cohort</h4>
215                        <p>A well-defined group of persons who have had a common experience or exposure and are then followed up, as in a cohort study or prospective study, to determine the incidence of new diseases or health events.
216                        </p>
217
218                        <h4>Community Health</h4>
219                        <p>Also called health education, it is the profession the entails planning, developing, implementing,  evaluating, and administering community health education programs.
220                                        The profession entails work in health behavior, community health research, biostatistics, epidemiology, grant writing, health communication and professional development.
221                                        This field integrates components of multiple theories and models to promote positive changes in attitudes and behaviors.
222                        </p>
223
224                        <h4>Community Water System</h4>
225                        <p>A type of public water system that supplies water for human consumption to at least 15 service connections and more than 25 people year-round.
226                        </p>
227
228                        <h4>Confidence interval</h4>
229                        <p>A range of values for a measure (e.g., rate or odds ratio) constructed so that the range has a specified probability (often, but not necessarily, 95%) of including the true value of the measure.
230                        </p>
231
232                        <h4>Confounding</h4>
233                        <p>The distortion of the association between an exposure and a health outcome by a third variable that is related to both.
234                        </p>
235
236                        <h4>Conductivity</h4>
237                        <p>Also called specific conductance the ability of water to conduct an electrical current and can indicate the amount of minerals dissolved in the water.
238                        </p>
239
240                        <h4>COPD</h4>
241                        <p> Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A serious lung disease that makes it hard to breathe and gets worse over time. 
242                        </p>
243
244                        <h4>Crude</h4>
245                        <p>When referring to a rate, an overall or summary rate for a population, without adjustment.
246                        </p>
247
248
249
250                        <h3 id="D">D <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
251                        <h4>Data (also, Data Set)</h4>
252                        <p>Any collection of related facts arranged in a particular format.
253                        </p>
254
255                        <h4>Database</h4>
256                        <p>One or more structured sets of persistent data, managed and stored as a unit and generally associated with software to update and query the data. A simple database
257                                        might be a single file with many records, each of which references the same set of fields. A GIS database includes data about the spatial locations and shapes of
258                                        geographic features recorded as points, lines, areas, pixels, or grid cells, as well as their attributes.
259                        </p>
260
261                        <h4>Data Query</h4>
262                        <p>A resource from NM EPHT designed to give users the ability to define their custom query settings from a list of options and the website, NMTracking,org, produces the data according to the definitions the user selected. This includes a mapping function. Custom queries allow users to work directly with datasets
263                        </p>
264
265                        <h4>Data Search and Exploration</h4>
266                        <p>A resource from NM EPHT, also called data query, designed to give users the ability to choose from a list of options on the website, NMTracking,org, produces the data according to the definitions the user selected.
267                        </p>
268
269                        <h4>Denominator</h4>
270                        <p>The lower portion of a fraction; used in calculating a ratio, proportion, or rate. For a rate, the denominator is usually the midinterval population.
271                        </p>
272
273                        <h4>Descriptive epidemiology</h4>
274                        <p>The aspect of epidemiology concerned with organizing and summarizing data regarding the persons affected (e.g., the characteristics of those who became ill), time (e.g., when they become ill), and place (e.g., where they might have been exposed to the cause of illness).
275                        </p>
276
277                        <h4>Determinants</h4>
278                        <p>The causes and other factors that influence the occurrence of disease and other health-related events.
279                                        Epidemiologists assume that illness does not occur randomly in a population but happens only when the right accumulation of risk factors or determinants exists in an individual.
280                        </p>
281
282                        <h4>Distribution in epidemiology</h4>
283                        <p>The frequency and pattern of health-related characteristics and events in a population. In statistics, the frequency and pattern of the values or categories of a variable.
284                        </p>
285
286                        <h4>Dose-response</h4>
287                        <p> Association between an exposure and health outcome that varies in a consistently increasing or decreasing fashion as the amount of exposure (dose) increases.
288                        </p>
289
290                        <h4>Drinking Water Quality</h4>
291                        <p>The condition of the water, including chemical, physical, and biological characteristics, that makes it suitable for drinking and cooking. 
292                        </p>
293
294                        <h4> Drought</h4>
295                        <p>An event when there is less rainfall than average over an extended time-period for a region often resulting in a shortage of water needed for:
296                                        basic needs, drinking, and agriculture, and to sustain the current environment. It impacts wildlands such as forests and grasslands and aquifers (groundwater) and surface water sources.
297                        </p>
298
299
300
301                        <h3 id="E">E <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
302                        <h4>Effect</h4>
303                        <p>The result of a cause.
304                        </p>
305
306                        <h4>Effectiveness</h4>
307                        <p>The ability of an intervention or program to produce the intended or expected results in the field.
308                        </p>
309
310                        <h4>Efficacy</h4>
311                        <p>The ability of an intervention or program to produce the intended or expected results under ideal conditions.
312                        </p>
313
314                        <h4>EHEB</h4>
315                        <p>Environmental Health Epidemiology Bureau, a bureau within the NM Department of Health and the New Mexico Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Grantee.
316                                        <a class="blank-target"
317                                                href="http://www.health.state.nm.us/eheb/">http://www.health.state.nm.us/eheb/</a>
318                        </p>
319
320                        <h4>Environmental Factor</h4>
321                        <p>An extrinsic factor (e.g., geology, climate, insects, sanitation, or health services) that affects an agent and the opportunity for exposure.
322                        </p>
323
324                        <h4>Environmental Health</h4>
325                        <p>Also called Environmental Public Health, the branch of public health concerned with monitoring or mitigating those factors in the environment that affect human health and disease.
326                        </p>
327
328                        <h4>Environmental Health Epidemiology Bureau</h4>
329                        <p>Bureau within the NM Department of Health in the Epidemiology and Response Division and the New Mexico Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Grantee.
330                                        <a class="blank-target"
331                                                href="http://www.health.state.nm.us/eheb/">http://www.health.state.nm.us/eheb/</a>
332                        </p>
333
334                        <h4>Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT)</h4>
335                        <p>The Environmental Public Health Tracking Network, operated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), brings together health data and environment data from national, state, and city sources and provides supporting information to make the data easier to understand.
336                                        The Tracking Network has data and information on environments and hazards, health effects, and population health.
337                        </p>
338
339                        <h4>Epidemic</h4>
340                        <p>The occurrence of more cases of disease, injury, or other health condition than expected in a given area or among a specific group of persons during a particular period.
341                                        Usually, the cases are presumed to have a common cause or to be related to one another in some way.
342                        </p>
343
344                        <h4>Epidemic Curve</h4>
345                        <p>A histogram that displays the course of an outbreak or epidemic by plotting the number of cases according to time of onset
346                        </p>
347
348                        <h4>Epidemiology</h4>
349                        <p>The study (scientific, systematic, data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases)
350                                        in specified populations (patient is community, individuals viewed collectively), and the application of (since epidemiology is a discipline within public health) this study to the control of health problems. 
351                        </p>
352
353                        <h4>Epidemiology and Response Division</h4>
354                        <p>Division within the NM Department of Health that leads epidemiologic surviallnce, investigations, and responses.
355                        </p>
356
357                        <h4>Epidemiology, Field</h4>
358                        <p>Applied epidemiology (i.e., the application or practice of epidemiology to control and prevent health problems),
359                                        particularly when the epidemiologist(s) must travel to and work in the community in which the health problem is occurring or has occurred.
360                        </p>
361
362                        <h4>ERD</h4>
363                        <p>Epidemiology and Response Division.
364                        </p>
365
366                        <h4>Evaluation, Program</h4>
367                        <p>The profession that oversees the process of examining a program's effectiveness at meeting the program's objectives and performance measures.
368                                        It involves collecting and analyzing information about a program's activities, characteristics, and outcomes.
369                                        The purpose of evaluation is to inform program leaders so they may sustain or improve program effectiveness and/or make programming decisions.
370                        </p>
371
372                        <h4> Exposure</h4>
373                        <p>Coming in contact with a cause of, or possessing a characteristic that is a determinant of, a particular health problem.
374                        </p>
375
376
377
378                        <h3 id="F">F <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
379                        <h4>Flood</h4>
380                        <p> An overflow of water that submerges usually dry land. Floods are an area of study in the discipline of hydrology. They are the most common and widespread natural severe weather event.
381                        </p>
382
383                        <h4>Fluoride</h4>
384                        <p>Naturally occurring minerals known for preventing tooth cavities. A common way for people to get fluoride is through drinking water.
385                                        It is often added to drinking water by community water systems when concentrations are very low. Private well owners need to test their water to know the concentrations.
386                        </p>
387
388                        <h4>Frequency</h4>
389                        <p>The amount or number of occurrences of an attribute or health outcome among a population.
390                                        Frequency refers not only to the number of health events such as the number of cases of meningitis or diabetes in a population, but also to the relationship of that number to the size of the population.
391                                        The resulting rate allows epidemiologists to compare disease occurrence across different populations.
392                        </p>
393
394                        <h4>Frequency Distribution</h4>
395                        <p>A complete summary of the frequencies of the values or categories of a variable often displayed in a
396                                        two-column table with the individual values or categories in the left column and the number of observations in each category in the right column.
397                               
398                        </p>
399
400                        <h4>Forecast</h4>
401                        <p>A prediction or estimate of future events and trends.
402                        </p>
403
404
405
406                        <h3 id="G">G <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
407                        <h4>Generators</h4>
408                        <p>Portable generators are internal combustion engines used to generate electricity. People use generators when electricity is not available, such as during power outages or when camping.
409                                        Generators are also used for temporary or remote power during recovery efforts after a disaster. Preventing carbon monoxide exposure is a safety measure that must be taken when using generators.
410                        </p>
411
412                        <h4>Geocode</h4>
413                        <p>A code that represents a geographic entity (location or object). It is a unique identifier of the entity, to distinguish it from others in a finite set of geographic entities. 
414                        </p>
415
416                        <h4>Geographic Information System, GIS</h4>
417                        <p>An integrated collection of computer software and data used to view and manage information about geographic places, analyze spatial relationships, and model spatial processes.
418                                        A GIS provides a framework for gathering and organizing spatial data and related information so it can be displayed and analyzed, odten in map form.
419                        </p>
420
421                        <h4>Graph</h4>
422                        <p>A visual display of quantitative data arranged on a system of coordinates.
423                        </p>
424
425
426
427                        <h3 id="H">H <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
428                        <h4>Health</h4>
429                        <p>A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or other infirmity
430                        </p>
431
432                        <h4>Health Communication</h4>
433                        <p>The profession which includes verbal and written strategies to influence and empower individuals, populations, and communities to make healthier choices.
434                                        Health communication often integrates components of multiple theories and models to promote positive changes in attitudes and behaviors.
435                        </p>
436
437                        <h4>Health Education</h4>
438                        <p>The profession of educating people about health. It entails any combination of learning experiences
439                                        designed to help individuals and communities improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes.
440                                        Professionals in the health education discipline plan, develop, implement, evaluate and administer community health education programs.
441                                        This field integrates components of multiple theories and models to promote positive changes in attitudes and behaviors.
442                        </p>
443
444                        <h4>Health Indicator</h4>
445                        <p>Any of a variety of measures (e.g., mortality rate) that indicate the state of health of a given population.
446                        </p>
447
448                        <h4>Health Information System</h4>
449                        <p>A combination of health statistics from different sources. Data from these systems are used to learn about health status, health care, provision and use of services, and the impact of services and programs on health.
450                        </p>
451
452                        <h4>Health Promotion</h4>
453                        <p>The profession entailing the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health.
454                                        It covers a wide range of social and environmental interventions that are designed to benefit and protect individual people's
455                                        health and quality of life by addressing and preventing the root causes and not just focusing on treatment and cure.
456                        </p>
457
458                        <h4>Heart Attack</h4>
459                        <p>Medically called acute myocardial infarction, a heart attack is a life-threatening condition that occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle is abruptly cut off, causing tissue damage.
460                        </p>
461
462                        <h4>Heat-related illness</h4>
463                        <p>Types of Illness that when temperatures and humidity are high. The main types of illness include heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, and heat rash.
464                        </p>
465
466                        <h4>Heat stress</h4>
467                        <p>A heat-related illness which can have many symptoms. This includes adverse health conditions such as heat exhaustion which can lead to heat stroke.
468                        </p>
469
470                        <h4>Heat stroke</h4>
471                        <p>A heat-related illness that happens when the body loses its ability to sweat.
472                        </p>
473
474
475
476                        <h3 id="I">I <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
477                        <h4>IBIS</h4>
478                        <p>Indiator Based Information System. Web-based platform used by NMTracking.org
479                        </p>
480
481                        <h4>Incidence</h4>
482                        <p>A measure of the frequency with which new cases of illness, injury, or other health condition occurs among a population during a specified period.
483                        </p>
484
485                        <h4>Incidence Rate</h4>
486                        <p>The number of new cases of disease over a period of time divided by the population at risk. An example is the number of new bladder cancer cases per 100,000 persons.
487                        </p>
488
489                        <h4>Incidence Proportion</h4>
490                        <p>The fraction of persons with new cases of illness, injury, or other health condition during a specified period, calculated as the number of new cases divided by the size of the population at the start of the study period (see also attack rate).
491                        </p>
492
493                        <h4>Incidence Rate</h4>
494                        <p>A measure of the frequency with which new cases of illness, injury, or other health condition occur, expressed explicitly per a time frame.
495                                        Incidence rate is calculated as the number of new cases over a specified period divided either by the average population (usually mid-period) or by the cumulative person-time the population was at risk.
496                        </p>
497
498                        <h4>Indicator</h4>
499                        <p>For Tracking, an indicator is one or more items, characteristics or other things that will be assessed and that provide information about a population's health status,
500                                        their environment, and other factors with the goal allowing us to monitor trends, compare situations, and better understand the link between environment and health.
501                                        It is assessed through direct and indirect measures (e.g., levels of a pollutant in the environment as a measure of possible exposure) that describe health or a
502                                        factor associated with health (i.e., environmental hazard, age) in a specified population. A content area may have more than one indicator.
503                        </p>
504
505                        <h4>Indicator Report</h4>
506                        <p>Indicator reports are designed to answer the question "How are we doing?" for a selected health outcome or environmental exposure.
507                                        These provide a snapshot and are often a starting point for many who are beginning to get acquainted with the environmental health subject.
508                                        You can access indicator reports by going to the Indicator Report Index under the "Data Portal" tab.
509                        </p>
510
511                        <h4>Infer</h4>
512                        <p>Deduce or conclude (information) from evidence and reasoning.
513                        </p>
514
515
516
517                        <h3 id="J">J <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
518                        <h4>Journal Article</h4>
519                        <p>A journal is a publication, print or online, with a collection of articles.
520                                        Journal articles are  peer-reviewed before publication and present recent research, findings, or perspectives in the form of that further our understanding about a topic
521                        </p>
522
523                        <h4>Juniper Tree Pollen</h4>
524                        <p>Very fine particles from evergreen juniper trees(common in New Mexico) and distributed in the air during key pollination periods January-April.
525                        </p>
526
527
528
529                        <h3 id="K">K <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
530                        <h4>Kilometer, km</h4>
531                        <p>One thousand meters.
532                        </p>
533
534
535
536                        <h3 id="L">L <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
537                        <h4>Latency Period</h4>
538                        <p>The time from exposure to a causal agent to onset of symptoms of a (usually noninfectious) disease (see also incubation period).
539                        </p>
540
541                        <h4> Lead</h4>
542                        <p>Environmental lead is a common toxic metal in our environment that can become a health hazard once it enters the body.   
543                        </p>
544
545                        <h4>Life Expectancy</h4>
546                        <p>A statistical projection of the average number of years a person of a given age is expected to live, if current mortality rates continue to apply.
547                        </p>
548
549                        <h4>Logic Model</h4>
550                        <p>An approach used by health education and health promotion professionals that is a graphic depiction (road map) that presents the shared relationships among the resources, activities, outputs, outcomes, and impact for health programs.
551                                        It depicts the relationship between program's activities and its intended effects. It is applied toward program planning and is useful in program evaluation for identifying performance measures and markers of success. 
552                        </p>
553
554                        <h4>Low-Birth Weight</h4>
555                        <p>When the first weight of the newborn obtained after birth. is less than 5.5 lbs (2500 grams) at birth.
556                        </p>
557
558
559
560                        <h3 id="M">M <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
561                        <h4>m, meter(s)</h4>
562                        <p>Unit of length in the International System of Units, equal to 39.37 inches.
563                        </p>
564
565                        <h4>Map</h4>
566                        <p>1) A graphic representation of the spatial relationships of entities within an area. 2) Any graphical representation of geographic or spatial information.
567                                        3) The document used to display and work with geographic data. A map contains one or more layers of geographic data and various supporting map elements,
568                                        such as a scale bar.
569                        </p>
570
571                        <h4>Map Area</h4>
572                        <p>A shaded, choropleth. A visual display of the geographic pattern of a health problem, in which a marker is placed on a map to indicate where each affected person lives, works, or might have been exposed.
573                        </p>
574
575                        <h4>mcg, ug, Ig</h4>
576                        <p>microgram(s); one one-millionth of a gram.
577                        </p>
578
579                        <h4>Mean</h4>
580                        <p>Commonly called the average; it is the most common measure of central tendency.
581                        </p>
582
583                        <h4>Measure</h4>
584                        <p>On the Tracking Network, a measure is a summary characteristic or statistic, such as a sum, percentage, or rate. There may be several measures of a specific
585                                        indicator which when considered in conjunction fully describe the indicator.
586                                        In addition to numbers or percentages, a measure can be a ratio, proportion, or rate.
587                        </p>
588
589                        <h4>Measurement</h4>
590                        <p>An observed numerical value that is an appraisal of size, extent, or amount according to a set of criteria.
591                        </p>
592
593                        <h4>Median</h4>
594                        <p>The measure of central location that divides a set of data into two equal parts, above and below which lie an equal number of values.
595                        </p>
596
597                        <h4>Mercury</h4>
598                        <p>A naturally occurring metal that exists in several forms. The types people are usually exposed to are methylmercury and elemental mercury.
599                                        Elemental mercury at room temperature is a shiny, silver-white liquid, which can produce a harmful odorless vapor. Ethylmercury, an organic compound, can build up in the bodies of long-living, predatory fish. 
600                        </p>
601
602                        <h4>Metadata</h4>
603                        <p>Information that describes the content, quality, condition, origin, and other characteristics of data or other pieces of information such as how, when, where, and by whom the data were collected; availability and distribution information; its projection,
604                                        scale, resolution, and accuracy; and its reliability with regard to some standard. Metadata consists of properties and documentation. Properties are derived
605                                        from the data source while documentation is entered by a person
606                                        (for example, keywords
607                                        used to describe the data). Metadata are data about NM EPHT-acquired data and datasets.
608                                        Once obtained, NM EPHT datasets are critically examined to fully characterize and describe the data elements, including the content, quality, and geographic and temporal extent. Exploring metadata is a way to discover data and learn about the NM EPHT datasets, specifically.
609                        </p>
610
611                        <h4>Mode</h4>
612                        <p>The most frequently occurring value in a set of observations.
613                        </p>
614
615                        <h4>Modeling</h4>
616                        <p>A representation, often mathematical, of trends, incidents, or systems.
617                        </p>
618
619                        <h4>Morbidity</h4>
620                        <p>Disease; any departure, subjective or objective, from a state of physiological or psychological health and well-being.
621                        </p>
622
623                        <h4>Mortality</h4>
624                        <p>Death.
625                        </p>
626
627                        <h4>Mortality Rate</h4>
628                        <p>A measure of the frequency of occurrence of death among a defined population during a specified time interval.
629                        </p>
630
631                        <h4>Mortality Rate, Age Adjusted</h4>
632                        <p>A mortality rate that has been statistically modified to eliminate the effect of different age distributions among different populations.
633                        </p>
634
635                        <h4>Mortality Rate, Age Specific.</h4>
636                        <p>A mortality rate limited to a particular age group, calculated as the number of deaths among the age group divided by the number of persons in that age group, usually expressed per 100,000.
637                        </p>
638
639                        <h4>Mortality rate, cause specific</h4>
640                        <p>The mortality rate from a specified cause, calculated as the number of deaths attributed to a specific cause during a specified time interval among a population divided by the size of the midinterval population.
641                        </p>
642
643                        <h4>Mortality Rate, Crude</h4>
644                        <p>A mortality rate from all causes of death for an entire population, without adjustment.
645                        </p>
646
647                        <h4>Mortality Rate, Infant.</h4>
648                        <p>The mortality rate for children aged less than 1 year, calculated as the number of deaths reported among this age group during a given period divided by the number of live births reported during the same period, and expressed per 1,000 live births. Infant mortality rate is a universally accepted indicator of the health of a nation's population and the adequacy of its health-care system. 
649                        </p>
650
651                        <h4>Mortality Rate, Race/Ethnic-Specific</h4>
652                        <p>A mortality rate limited to a specified racial or ethnic group both numerator and denominator are limited to that group.
653                        </p>
654
655                        <h4>Mortality Rate, Sex Specific</h4>
656                        <p>A mortality rate among either males or females.
657                        </p>
658
659
660
661                        <h3 id="N">N <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
662                        <h4>National Consistent Data Measure (NCDM)</h4>
663                        <p>Data that is collected and analyzed in a way that is constituent between states which enables data comparison between states in the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. 
664                        </p>
665
666                        <h4>New Mexico</h4>
667                        <p>New Mexico is a state in the United States in the southwestern region of the country. New Mexico is the fifth-largest state and has a centralized health department which is operated by the State of New Mexico government.
668                        </p>
669
670                        <h4>New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH or NM DOH)</h4>
671                        <p>The State of New Mexico's centralized health department. <a class="blank-target"
672                                                href="https://www.nmhealth.org/"
673                                                title="external site opens in new tab or window">https://www.nmhealth.org/</a>
674                        </p>
675
676                        <h4>Nitrate</h4>
677                        <p>A compound that forms naturally when nitrogen combines with oxygen or ozone.
678                        </p>
679
680                        <h4>NM</h4>
681                        <p>New Mexico.
682                        </p>
683
684                        <h4>NMDOH or NM DOH</h4>
685                        <p> New Mexico Department of Health which is the state's centralized health department operated by the State of New Mexico government. <a class="blank-target"
686                                                href="https://www.nmhealth.org/"
687                                                title="external site opens in new tab or window">https://www.nmhealth.org/</a>
688                        </p>
689
690                        <h4>NMDOH EHEB</h4>
691                        <p>Environmental Health Epidemiology Bureau, a bureau within the NM Department of Health and the New Mexico Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Grantee.
692                                        <a class="blank-target"
693                                                href="http://www.health.state.nm.us/eheb/">http://www.health.state.nm.us/eheb/</a>
694                        </p>
695
696                        <h4>NMED</h4>
697                        <p>New Mexico Environment Department.  NM EPHT works closely with NMED. Common bureaus we work with include Air Quality Bureau (NMED AQB) and
698                                        Drinking Water Bureau (NMED DWB).
699                        </p>
700
701                        <h4>Nominal Data</h4>
702                        <p>Data divided into classes within which all elements are assumed to be equal to each other, and in which no class comes before another in sequence or importance;
703                                        for example, a group of polygons colored to represent different soil types.
704                        </p>
705
706                        <h4>Normal Curve</h4>
707                        <p>The bell-shaped curve that results when a normal distribution is graphed.
708                        </p>
709
710                        <h4>Normal Distribution</h4>
711                        <p>A distribution represented as a bell shape, symmetrical on both sides of the peak, which is simultaneously the mean, median, and mode, and with both tails extending to infinity.
712                        </p>
713
714                        <h4>Notifiable Condition</h4>
715                        <p>A condition or lab result that by law, must be reported to New Mexico Department of Health. 
716                        </p>
717
718                        <h4>Numerator</h4>
719                        <p>The upper portion of a fraction.
720                        </p>
721
722
723
724                        <h3 id="O">O <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
725                        <h4>Odds Ratio</h4>
726                        <p>A measure of association used in comparative studies, particularly case-control studies, that quantifies the association between an exposure and a health outcome; also called the cross-product ratio.
727                        </p>
728
729                        <h4>Ordinal Data</h4>
730                        <p>Ordinal data is a categorical, statistical data type where the variables have natural, ordered categories and the distances between the categories is not known. Data classified by comparative value; for example, a group of polygons colored lighter to darker to represent less to more densely populated areas.
731                        </p>
732
733                        <h4>Outbreak</h4>
734                        <p>The occurrence of more cases of disease, injury, or other health condition than expected in a given area or among a specific group of persons during a specific period. Usually, the cases are presumed to have a common cause or to be related to one another in some way. Sometimes distinguished from an epidemic as more localized.
735                        </p>
736
737                        <h4>Outcome(s)</h4>
738                        <p>Any or all of the possible results that can stem from exposure to a causal factor or from preventive or therapeutic interventions; all identified changes in health status that result from the handling of a health problem.
739                        </p>
740
741                        <h4>Outlier</h4>
742                        <p>A value substantively or statistically different from all (or approximately all) of the other values in a distribution.
743                        </p>
744
745
746
747                        <h3 id="P">P <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
748                        <h4> Particulate Matter (PM)</h4>
749                        <p>Particles suspended in breathing-level air. (Text for PM, PM2.5, and PM10 is from the AIRNow Web site at http://airnow.gov.) Particle pollution, also
750                                        known as particulate matter, in the air includes a mixture of solids and liquid droplets. Some particles are emitted directly; others are formed in
751                                        the atmosphere when other pollutants react. Particles come in a wide range of sizes. Those less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10) are so small
752                                        that they can get into the lungs, potentially causing serious health problems. Ten micrometers is smaller than the width of a single human hair.
753                                        Particle exposure can lead to a variety of health effects.
754                        </p>
755
756                        <h4>Pattern</h4>
757                        <p>Refers to the occurrence of health-related events by time, place, and person. Time patterns may be annual, seasonal, weekly, daily, hourly, weekday versus weekend, or any other breakdown of time that may influence disease or injury occurrence. Place patterns include geographic variation, urban/rural differences, and location of work sites or schools. Personal characteristics include demographic factors which may be related to risk of illness, injury, or disability such as age, sex, marital status, and socioeconomic status, as well as behaviors and environmental exposures.
758                        </p>
759
760                        <h4>Pandemic</h4>
761                        <p>An epidemic occurring over a widespread area (multiple countries or continents) and usually affecting a substantial proportion of the population.
762                        </p>
763
764                        <h4>Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)</h4>
765                        <p>A group of man-made chemicals, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), with high thermal and chemical stability, long-distance transportation ability, and potential for accumulation in the food chain and human body.
766                        </p>
767
768                        <h4>Percentile</h4>
769                        <p>A set of cut points used to divide a distribution or a set of ranked data into 100 parts of equal area with each interval between the points containing 1/100 or 1% of the observations. For example, the 5th percentile is a cut point with 5% of the observations below it and the remaining 95% above it.
770                        </p>
771
772                        <h4>PFAS</h4>
773                        <p>Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
774                        </p>
775
776                        <h4>pH (Water)</h4>
777                        <p>The pH of water indicates if it is acidic, basic, or neutral on a scale of 0-14. A value below 7 is acidic and above 7 is basic.
778                        </p>
779
780                        <h4>PHAiRS</h4>
781                        <p>Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing. <a class="blank-target"
782                                                href="http://phairs.unm.edu/"
783                                                title="external site opens in new tab or window">http://phairs.unm.edu/</a> links to the project Web site. 
784                        </p>
785
786                        <h4>PM2.5</h4>
787                        <p>Fine particles are particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. These particles are so small they can be detected only with an electron microscope.
788                                        Sources of fine particles include all types of combustion, including motor vehicles, power plants, residential wood burning, forest fires, agricultural
789                                        burning, and some industrial processes.
790                        </p>
791
792                        <h4>PM10</h4>
793                        <p>Coarse dust particles are particles between 2.5 and 10 micrometers in diameter. Sources of coarse particles include crushing or grinding operations
794                                        and dust stirred up by vehicles traveling on roads.
795                        </p>
796
797                        <h4>Point</h4>
798                        <p>A geometric element defined by a pair of x,y coordinates. (ESRI) A point represents a feature's location but not its shape or how much area it covers.
799                                        Examples of points on a map are individual buildings, monitoring stations, and towers.
800                        </p>
801
802                        <h4>Poison</h4>
803                        <p>An agent that is capable of causing harm to a living organism. Almost any substance can act as a poison, if a sufficiently large dose is absorbed into the body. 
804                        </p>
805
806                        <h4>Poisonings</h4>
807                        <p>An important public health problem, it is when people are injured or die as a result of exposure to industrial and natural poisons.
808                        </p>
809
810                        <h4>Population</h4>
811                        <p>The total number of inhabitants of a geographic area or the total number of persons in a group (e.g., the number of persons engaged in a certain occupation).
812                        </p>
813
814                        <h4> Polygon</h4>
815                        <p>On a map, a closed shape defined by a connected sequence of x,y coordinate pairs, where the first and last coordinate pair are the same and all other
816                                        pairs are unique. (ESRI) Examples of polygons are rectangles, circles, ovals, the areas enclosed by the City Limits layer, the areas that represent
817                                        classes or types of vegetation in the Vegetation layer, etc.
818                        </p>
819
820                        <h4>Premature (preterm) birth</h4>
821                        <p>The annual percentage of live singleton births that occur at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation.
822                        </p>
823
824                        <h4>Prevalence</h4>
825                        <p>The number or proportion of cases or events or attributes among a given population.
826                        </p>
827
828                        <h4>Prevalence Rate</h4>
829                        <p>The proportion of a population that has a particular disease, injury, other health condition, or attribute at a specified point in time (point prevalence) or during a specified period (period prevalence).
830                        </p>
831
832                        <h4>Prevalence Period</h4>
833                        <p> The amount of a disease, chronic condition, or type of injury present among a population at any time during a period. The number of existing cases of disease at a point in time divided by the total population. An example is the number of existing cases of a
834                                        birth defect per 10,000 live births.
835                        </p>
836
837                        <h4>Prevalence Point</h4>
838                        <p>The amount of a disease, chronic condition, or type of injury present among a population at a single point in time.
839                        </p>
840
841                        <h4>Private Well</h4>
842                        <p>A way of accessing groundwater for households not on a community water system. It is often the only means of accessing drinking such as in areas where there is no access to a municipal water system. To create a private well, a hole is drilled into the ground down to the aquifer-a permeable layer of rock that contains water. A pump system is then used to carry that water up and into a home. 
843                        </p>
844
845                        <h4>Proportion</h4>
846                        <p>A type of ratio which is the number of events or cases that meet a set of criteria divided by the maximum number of events or cases that
847                                        could meet those criteria. In this case, the numerator is included in the denominator. Proportions are usually expressed as percentages.
848                                        An example is the number of low birth weight births among all term singleton births.
849                        </p>
850
851                        <h4>Public Health</h4>
852                        <p>The science of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities. 
853                        </p>
854
855                        <h4>P-Value</h4>
856                        <p>The probability of observing an association between two variables or a difference between two or more groups as large or larger than that observed, if the null hypothesis were true. Used in statistical testing to evaluate the plausibility of the null hypothesis (i.e., whether the observed association or difference plausibly might have occurred by chance).
857                        </p>
858
859
860
861                        <h3 id="Q">Q <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
862                        <h4>Query</h4>
863                        <p>A request to select features or records from a database. In the NM EPHT Interactive Data Query, the query statements or expressions are programmed into the application.
864                        </p>
865
866
867
868                        <h3 id="R">R <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
869                        <h4>Radon</h4>
870                        <p>A naturally occurring radioactive gas released from rock, soil and water. It can build up to dangerous levels inside any home.
871                                        Since radon gas is odorless and invisible, the only way to know if your home has a radon problem is to test for it.
872                        </p>
873
874                        <h4>Ratio</h4>
875                        <p>The relative size of two quantities, calculated by dividing one quantity by the other. The number of events or cases that meet a set of criteria divided by the number of events or cases that meet a different set of criteria. Ratios are used to compare the occurrence of a variable in two different groups. An example is the ratio of males to females among term singleton births.
876                        </p>
877
878                        <h4>Record</h4>
879                        <p> A record represents data related to a single case or a set of related data fields, often a row in a database, containing all the attribute values for a single feature.
880                        </p>
881
882                        <h4>Relative Risk</h4>
883                        <p>A general term for measures of association calculated from the data in a two-by-two table, including risk ratio, rate ratio, and odds ratio.
884                        </p>
885
886                        <h4>Resolution</h4>
887                        <p>The detail with which a map depicts the location and shape of geographic features.
888                                        The larger the map scale, the higher the possible resolution. As scale decreases, resolution diminishes. For example, small areas in maps may have to be represented as points.
889                        </p>
890
891                        <h4>Response</h4>
892                        <p>A step in the public health process, often part of the epidemiology component, that entails the public health and epidemiological actions during the first 24 hours of an acute situation, ranging from exposures, emergencies and disasters and the following long-term activities such as those done during epidemics and pandemics.
893                        </p>
894
895                        <h4>Risk</h4>
896                        <p>The probability that an event will occur (e.g., that a person will be affected by, or die from, an illness, injury, or other health condition within a specified time or age span).
897                        </p>
898
899                        <h4>Risk Factor</h4>
900                        <p>An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, an environmental exposure, or a hereditary characteristic that is associated with an increase in the occurrence of a disease, injury, or other health condition.
901                        </p>
902
903                        <h4>Risk Ratio</h4>
904                        <p>A measure of association that quantifies the association between an exposure and a health outcome from an epidemiologic study, calculated as the ratio of incidence proportions of two groups.
905                        </p>
906
907
908
909                        <h3 id="S">S <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
910                        <h4>Safe Drinking Water Act, SDWA</h4>
911                        <p>U.S. EPA Safe Drinking Water Act. <a class="blank-target"
912                                                href="http://www.epa.gov/safewater/sdwa.html"
913                                                title="external site opens in new tab or window">http://www.epa.gov/safewater/sdwa/</a>
914                        </p>
915
916                        <h4>Safe Drinking Water Information System, SDWIS</h4>
917                        <p>U.S. EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System. <a class="blank-target"
918                                                href="http://www.epa.gov/safewater/databases/sdwis/"
919                                                title="external site opens in new tab or window">http://www.epa.gov/safewater/databases/sdwis/</a>
920                        </p>
921
922                        <h4>Sample</h4>
923                        <p>A selected subset of a population a sample can be random or nonrandom and representative or nonrepresentative. 
924                        </p>
925
926                        <h4>Sample, Random</h4>
927                        <p>A sample of persons chosen in such a way that each one has the same (and known) probability of being selected. 
928                        </p>
929
930                        <h4>Sample, Representative</h4>
931                        <p>A sample whose characteristics correspond to those of the original or reference population. 
932                        </p>
933
934                        <h4>Scale, Interval</h4>
935                        <p>A measurement scale consisting of quantitative categories whose values are measured on a scale of equally spaced units, but without a true zero point (e.g., date of birth).
936                        </p>
937
938                        <h4>Scale, Nominal</h4>
939                        <p>A measurement scale consisting of qualitative categories whose values have no inherent statistical order or rank (e.g., categories of race/ethnicity, religion, or country of birth).
940                        </p>
941
942                        <h4>Scale, Ordinal</h4>
943                        <p>A measurement scale consisting of qualitative categories whose values have a distinct order but no numerical distance between their possible values (e.g., stage of cancer, I, II, III, or IV).
944                        </p>
945
946                        <h4>Scale, Ratio</h4>
947                        <p>A measurement scale consisting of quantitative categories whose values are intervals with a true zero point (e.g., height in centimeters or duration of illness).
948                        </p>
949
950                        <h4>Seasonality</h4>
951                        <p>Change in physiologic status or in the occurrence of a disease, chronic condition, or type of injury that conforms to a regular seasonal pattern.
952                        </p>
953
954                        <h4>Shapefile</h4>
955                        <p>A vector data storage format for storing the location, shape, and attributes of geographic features. A shapefile is stored in a set of related files and contains one feature class.
956                        </p>
957
958                        <h4>Skewed</h4>
959                        <p>A distribution that is not symmetrical.
960                        </p>
961
962                        <h4>Smoke</h4>
963                        <p>Smoke is a complex mixture of carbon dioxide, water vapor, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals, nitrogen oxides, and metals.
964                                        This mixture can irritate and even injure the mouth, nose, throat, and lung tissue.
965                        </p>
966
967                        <h4>Spatial Data</h4>
968                        <p>1) Information about the locations and shapes of geographic features and the relationships between them, usually stored as coordinates and topology. 2) Any data that can be mapped.
969                                        Scale
970                        </p>
971
972                        <h4>Specificity</h4>
973                        <p>The ability or a test, case definition, or surveillance system to exclude persons without the health condition of interest; the proportion of persons without a health condition that are correctly identified as such by a screening test, case definition, or surveillance system.
974                        </p>
975
976                        <h4>Sporadic</h4>
977                        <p>An event that occurs infrequently and irregularly.
978                        </p>
979
980                        <h4>Standard Deviation</h4>
981                        <p>A statistical summary of how dispersed the values of a variable are around its mean, calculated as the square root of the variance.
982                        </p>
983
984                        <h4>Static Data and Maps</h4>
985                        <p>Resources from NM EPHT that provide data visualization for selected health outcome or environmental exposure in the forms of maps, charts, graphs, infographics, and table formats. 
986                        </p>
987
988                        <h4>Statistical Inference</h4>
989                        <p>Generalizations developed from sample data, usually with calculated degrees of uncertainty.
990                        </p>
991
992                        <h4>Statistical Significance</h4>
993                        <p>The measure of how likely it is that a set of study results could have occurred by chance alone.
994                                        Statistical significance is based on an estimate of the probability of the observed or a greater degree of association between independent and dependent variables occurring under the null hypothesis (see also P value).
995                        </p>
996
997                        <h4>Study</h4>
998                        <ul class="Indent">
999                                <li>Cohort: An observational analytic study in which enrollment is based on status of exposure to a certain factor or membership in a certain group.
1000                                        Populations are followed, and disease, death, or other health-related outcomes are documented and compared. Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective.</li>
1001                                <li>Cross-Sectional: A study in which a sample of persons from a population are enrolled and their exposures and health outcomes are measured simultaneously; a survey.</li>
1002                                <li>Experimental: A study in which the investigator specifies the type of exposure for each person (clinical trial) or community (community trial) then follows the persons' or communities' health status to determine the effects of the exposure.</li>
1003                                <li>Observational: A study in which the investigator observes rather than influences exposure and disease among participants. Case-control and cohort studies are observational studies (see also study, experimental).</li>
1004                        </ul>
1005
1006                        <h4>Surface</h4>
1007                        <p>A geographic phenomenon represented as a set of continuous data (such as elevation, geological boundaries, or air pollution); a spatial distribution which associates a single
1008                                        value with each position in a plane, usually associated with continuous attributes.
1009                        </p>
1010
1011                        <h4>Surveillance</h4>
1012                        <p>Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data essential to planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice.
1013                        </p>
1014                        <ul class="Indent">
1015                                <li>Active: Public health surveillance in which the health agency solicits reports.</li>
1016                                <li>Medical: Monitoring of a person who might have been exposed to an infectious, chemical, radiologic, or other potentially causal agent, for the purpose of detecting early symptoms.</li>
1017                                <li>Passive: Public health surveillance in which data are sent to the health agency without prompting.</li>
1018                                <li>Syndromic: 1) The monitoring of the frequency of illnesses with a specified set of clinical features among a given population without regard to the specific diagnoses, if any, that are assigned to them by clinicians.
1019                                        (2) A system for early detection of outbreaks whereby health department staff, assisted by automated acquisition of data routinely collected for other purposes
1020                                        and computer generation of statistical signals, monitor disease indicators, particularly those associated with possible terrorism-related biologic and chemical agents, continually or at least daily to detect outbreaks earlier than would otherwise be possible with traditional public health methods.</li>
1021                        </ul>
1022
1023                        <h4>Survey</h4>
1024                        <p>A systematic canvassing of persons to collect information, often from a representative sample of the population.
1025                        </p>
1026
1027                        <h4>Survival Curve</h4>
1028                        <p>A line graph that begins with 100% of the study population and displays the percentage of the population still surviving at successive points in time.
1029                                        A survival curve can also be used to depict freedom from a health problem, complication, or another endpoint.
1030                        </p>
1031
1032                        <h4>Symmetrical</h4>
1033                        <p>A type of distribution where the shapes to the right and left of the central location are the same. Normal, bell-shaped distributions are symmetrical; the mean, median, and mode are the same.
1034                        </p>
1035
1036                        <h4>Symptom</h4>
1037                        <p>Any indication of disease noticed or felt by a patient.
1038                        </p>
1039
1040                        <h4>Syndrome</h4>
1041                        <p>A combination of symptoms characteristic of a disease or health condition; sometimes refers to a health condition without a clear cause (e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome).
1042                        </p>
1043
1044
1045
1046                        <h3 id="T">T <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
1047                        <h4>Table</h4>
1048                        <p>A set of data elements arranged in rows and columns. Each row represents a single record. Each column represents a field of the record. Rows and columns
1049                                        intersect to form cells, which contain a specific value for one field in a record.
1050                        </p>
1051
1052                        <h4>Tabular Data</h4>
1053                        <p>Descriptive information, usually alphanumeric, that is stored in rows and columns in a database and can be linked to spatial data.
1054                        </p>
1055
1056                        <h4>Temporal Data</h4>
1057                        <p>Data that specifically refer to times or dates. Temporal data may refer to discrete events, such as dust storms or lightning strikes; moving objects,
1058                                        such as trains; or repeated observations, such as counts from traffic sensors.
1059                        </p>
1060
1061                        <h4>Terrain</h4>
1062                        <p>An area of land having a particular characteristic, such as sandy terrain or mountainous terrain.
1063                        </p>
1064
1065                        <h4>Thematic Map</h4>
1066                        <p>A map designed to convey information about a single topic or theme, such as population density or geology.
1067                        </p>
1068
1069                        <h4>Topography</h4>
1070                        <p>The study and mapping of land surfaces, including relief (relative positions and elevations) and the position of natural and constructed features.
1071                        </p>
1072
1073                        <h4>Topology</h4>
1074                        <p>In geodatabases, the arrangement that constrains how point, line, and polygon features share geometry. 
1075                        </p>
1076
1077                        <h4>Transmission</h4>
1078                        Transfer of an agent.
1079                        <ul class="Indent">
1080                                <li>Airborne: Transfer of an agent suspended in the air, considered a type of indirect transmission.</li>
1081                                <li>Biologic: Indirect transmission by a vector in which the infectious agent undergoes biologic changes inside the vector as part of its life cycle before it is transmitted to the host.</li>
1082                                <li>Direct: Immediate transfer of an agent from a reservoir to a host by direct contact or droplet spread.</li>
1083                                <li>Indirect: Transfer of an agent from a reservoir to a host either by being suspended in air particles (airborne), carried by an inanimate objects (vehicleborne), or carried by an animate intermediary (vectorborne).</li>
1084                                <li>Vector Borne: Transmission of an agent by a living intermediary (e.g., tick, mosquito, or flea); considered a type of indirect transmission.</li>
1085                                <li>Vehicle Borne: transmission of an agent by an inanimate object; considered a type of indirect transmission; includes foodborne and waterborne transmission.</li>
1086                        </ul>
1087
1088                        <h4>Trend</h4>
1089                        <p>Movement or change in frequency over time, usually upwards or downwards.
1090                        </p>
1091
1092
1093
1094                        <h3 id="U">U <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
1095                        <h4>ug, Ig</h4>
1096                        <p>     microgram(s); one one-millionth of a gram.
1097                        </p>
1098
1099                        <h4>UNM</h4>
1100                        <p>     University of New Mexico
1101                        </p>
1102
1103                        <h4>Uranium</h4>
1104                        <p>A weakly radioactive heavy metal that occurs naturally. Rocks, soil, surface and ground water, air, plants, and animals (including humans) all contain varying amounts of uranium.
1105                        </p>
1106
1107                        <h4>USGS, U.S.G.S</h4>
1108                        <p>United States Geological Survey. <a class="blank-target"
1109                                                href="http://www.usgs.gov/"
1110                                                title="external site opens in new tab or window">http://www.usgs.gov/</a>
1111                        </p>
1112
1113
1114
1115                        <h3 id="V">V <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
1116                        <h4>Variable</h4>
1117                        <p>1) The degree to which a measurement, questionnaire, test, or study or any other data-collection tool measures what it is intended to measure. 2) Any characteristic or attribute that can be measured and can have different values. 
1118                        </p>
1119
1120                        <h4>Variance</h4>
1121                        <p>A measure of the spread in a set of observations, calculated as the sum of the squares of deviations from the mean, divided by the number of observations minus 1. 
1122                        </p>
1123
1124                        <h4>Vector</h4>
1125                        <p>A living intermediary that carries an agent from a reservoir to a susceptible host (e.g., mosquitoes, fleas, or ticks).
1126                        </p>
1127
1128                        <h4>Vector (mapping and design)</h4>
1129                        <p>A coordinate-based data model that represents geographic features as points, lines, and polygons. Each point feature is represented as a single coordinate pair,
1130                                        while line and polygon features are represented as ordered lists of vertices. Attributes are associated with each vector feature, as opposed to a raster data model,
1131                                        which associates attributes with grid cells.
1132                        </p>
1133
1134                        <h4>Vital Statistics</h4>
1135                        <p>Systematically tabulated data about recorded births, marriages, divorces, and deaths.
1136                        </p>
1137
1138
1139
1140                        <h3 id="W">W <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
1141                        <h4>Water</h4>
1142                        <p>An inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms. Water is indeed essential for all life on Earth.
1143                        </p>
1144
1145                        <h4>Water Quality</h4>
1146                        <p>Water quality describes the condition of the water, including chemical, physical, and biological characteristics, often referring to the suitability for human consumption such as for drinking and cooking, but it can also refer to the suitability for other purposes such as bathing, cleaning, and swimming. 
1147                        </p>
1148
1149                        <h4>Weather</h4>
1150                        <p>The mix of events that happens each day in our atmosphere such as temperature, cloudiness, humidity, and storms.
1151                        </p>
1152
1153                        <h4>Wildland Fire</h4>
1154                        <p>Any nonstructure fire, other than prescribed fire, that occurs in the wildland.
1155                        </p>
1156
1157
1158
1159                        <h3 id="X">X <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
1160                        <h4>X-Axis</h4>
1161                        <p>The horizontal axis of a rectangular graph, usually displaying the independent variable (e.g., time).
1162                        </p>
1163
1164                        <h4>X,Y Coordinates</h4>
1165                        <p>A pair of values that represents the distance from an origin (0,0) along two axes, a horizontal axis (x), and a vertical axis (y). On a map, x,y coordinates are used to
1166                                        represent features at the location they are found on the Earth's spherical surface.
1167                        </p>
1168
1169                        <h4>X,Y,Z Coordinates</h4>
1170                        <p>In a planar coordinate system, three coordinates that locate a point by its distance from an origin (0,0,0) where three orthogonal axes cross. Usually, the x-coordinate
1171                                        is measured along the east-west axis, the y-coordinate is measured along the north-south axis, and the z-coordinate measures height or elevation.
1172                        </p>
1173
1174
1175
1176                        <h3 id="Y">Y <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
1177                        <h4>Y-Axis</h4>
1178                        <p>The vertical axis of a rectangular graph, usually displaying the dependent variable (e.g., frequency - number, proportion, or rate).
1179                        </p>
1180
1181                        <h4>Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL)</h4>
1182                        <p>A measure of the impact of premature death on a population, calculated as the sum of the differences between a predetermined minimally acceptable age
1183                                        (e.g., 65 years or current life expectancy) and the age at death for everyone who died earlier than that age.
1184                        </p>
1185
1186
1187
1188                        <h3 id="Z">Z <a ibis:hash="top">Top</a></h3>
1189                        <h4>Zia Sun Symbol</h4>
1190                        <p>A symbol from the Zia Pueblo in New Mexico used in the center of New Mexico state flag.
1191                                        The Zia Pueblo symbol represents the four winds, the four seasons, the four directions, and the four sacred obligations.
1192                                        Use of the symbol should be done respectively and appropriately.
1193                                        <a class="blank-target"
1194                                                href="https://www.ziapueblo.org/"
1195                                                title="external site opens in new tab or window">https://www.ziapueblo.org/</a>
1196                        </p>
1197
1198                        <h4>Zoonosis</h4>
1199                        <p>An infectious disease that is transmissible from animals to humans.
1200                        </p>
1201                </section>
1202        </CONTENT>
1203</HTML_CONTENT>
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