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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2
3<HTML_CONTENT xmlns:ibis="http://www.ibisph.org">
4
5        <TITLE>Lead Poisoning</TITLE>
6
7        <HTML_CLASS>Topic Health</HTML_CLASS>
8        <OTHER_HEAD_CONTENT>
9                <link ibis:href="css/Topic.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/>
10                <link ibis:href="css/_SiteSpecific-Topic.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/>
11
12                <script ibis:src="js/jquery.scrollBlockListItems.js"/>
13                <script>
14                        $( document ).ready(function() {
15                                $(".Topic #downloadsResources .Selections").scrollBlockListItems( {"maxSelectionsContainerHeight":190});
16                        });
17                </script>
18        </OTHER_HEAD_CONTENT>
19
20        <CONTENT>
21
22                <header>
23                        <img ibis:src="view/image/health/poisonings/lead/cerrillosmine.jpg" title="Cerrillos NM abandoned mines - besides turquoise, lead and other metals were mined here."/> 
24                        <h1>Lead Poisoning</h1>
25                </header>
26                       
27                <section>
28                        <h2>What is Lead Poisoning?</h2>
29                        <p>
30                                Lead is a toxic metal found in our environment.  It can be found in dust, air, soil, water, and even inside our homes.  While lead is a natural occurring mineral found in the earth's crust, humans are exposed to lead mostly through its use in products and hobbies such as stained-glass making, guns and ammunition, or lead in imported plastics. Historic sources are lead water pipes, lead-based paint, and soils contaminated with leaded gasoline.  Lead enters the body by breathing or swallowing lead or lead dust.  Lead is poisonous to the human body.  Once lead enters the body, it can have negative health impacts on all bodily systems.
31                        </p>
32
33                        <h3>Childhood lead poisoning</h3>
34                        <p>
35                                Lead exposure in American children remains a major health concern, however current US estimates on the number of children with elevated blood lead levels are not known as data are not collected uniformly by states. The CDC defines an elevated blood lead level (elevated BLL) as a single blood lead test (capillary or venous) at or above the CDC blood lead reference value of 5 mcg/dL established in 2012 <a href="#ref1" id="ref1.link" aria-describedby="footnote-label"></a>. In New Mexico, a child is considered to have an elevated blood lead level (EBLL) at a concentration of 5 mcg/dL or greater.
36                        </p>                   
37                        <p>
38                                Lead in the body can harm nearly every organ system, including the nervous, blood, hormonal, kidney, and reproductive systems. Because the bodies of young children absorb lead more readily than adults, children's brains are rapidly developing and establishing critical neural connections in the first three years of life, children are more susceptible to harmful health effects from lead than adults. Additionally, the normal behaviors of very young children, such as crawling, exploring, teething, and putting objects in their mouth, put them at an increased risk for lead exposure. There is no known safe level of exposure to lead. Although children from all social and economic levels can be affected by lead, the poorest children are the most at risk due to a host of socioeconomic factors such as lack of access to high quality foods and living in substandard housing. New Mexico requires all children enrolled in Medicaid be tested for lead exposure at ages 12 months and 24 months.
39                        </p>
40                        <footer class="Footnotes"><ol>
41                        <li id="ref1"> <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/data/case-definitions-classifications.htm">
42                                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Standard Surveillance Definitions and Classifications </a> Accessed 1/30/2021
43                        <a href="#ref1.link" aria-label="Back to content">«</a></li>
44                        </ol></footer>
45                </section>
46                <section class="SubSectionsContainer">
47                        <h2>What are the Health Effects of Lead Poisoning?</h2>
48                        <h3>Children</h3>
49                        <p>
50                                For children, especially those under the age of 6, lead can cause serious health problems that may cause lifelong damage.  Some of the effects include: brain and nervous system damage, learning difficulties, limited attention span, behavioral problems, hyperactivity, decreased growth, kidney damage, hearing loss, and anemia. If not detected, and at very high blood lead levels, seizures, coma, and death can occur.
51                        </p>
52
53                        <h3>Adults</h3> 
54                        <p>
55                                Adults can suffer from damage to the nervous, heart, and circulatory systems.  An increase in blood pressure can be common.  Other effects include decreased kidney function and reproductive problems in both men and women.
56                        </p>
57                        <p>
58                                Pregnant woman who are lead poisoned can experience high blood pressure, miscarriage or stillborn births, premature births, or babies born at a low birth weight. Lead can be passed to the unborn baby through the placenta and damage the baby's brain and central nervous system.  Lead can also be passed to the baby through breast milk.
59                        </p>
60
61                        <section class="ImageInfoBlock">
62                                <figure title="colicky baby">
63                                        <img ibis:src="view/image/health/poisonings/lead/sickbaby.jpg"/> 
64                                        <figcaption>
65                                                Symptoms can look like other conditions, such as colic.
66                                        </figcaption>
67                                </figure>
68
69                                <div>
70                                        <h3>Symptoms of lead poisoning</h3>
71                                        <p>
72                                                For both children and adults, there may be no obvious symptoms of lead poisoning. Symptoms may not appear until blood lead levels are quite high. Often the symptoms people do experience may be mistaken for other illnesses.
73                                        </p>
74                                        <ul>
75                                                <li>
76                                                        Lack of desire to eat food
77                                                </li>
78                                                <li>
79                                                        Loss of recently acquired skills (in young children)
80                                                </li>
81                                                <li>
82                                                        Drowsiness
83                                                </li>
84                                                <li>
85                                                        Irritability
86                                                </li>   
87                                                <li>
88                                                        Headache
89                                                </li>                                           
90                                                <li>
91                                                        Lack of energy
92                                                </li>
93                                                <li>
94                                                        Constipation
95                                                </li>
96                                                <li>
97                                                        Stomach cramps
98                                                </li>
99                                                <li>
100                                                        Trouble sleeping
101                                                </li>
102                                        </ul>
103                                </div>
104                        </section>
105
106                        <section class="ImageInfoBlock">
107                                <div>
108                                        <h3>Lead sources</h3>
109                                        <p>
110                                                The sources of lead in the environment are numerous. Some of the more common sources for exposure in children include:
111                                        </p>
112                                        <ul>
113                                                <li>
114                                                        Parent's hobbies that include the use of lead (such as making stained glass windows, hunting, fishing, target shooting)
115                                                </li>                                                   
116                                                <li>
117                                                        Parent's work that includes the use of lead, such as recycling or making automotive batteries, painting, radiator repair (take home lead on work clothes or shoes)
118                                                </li>
119                                                <li>
120                                                        Certain toy jewelry or older toys
121                                                </li>
122                                                <li>
123                                                        Antiques and antigue decorative items
124                                                </li>
125                                                <li>
126                                                        Lead-based paint found in buildings older than 1978
127                                                </li>
128                                                <li>
129                                                        Some imported foods or candies (some candies from Mexico have been found to have lead)
130                                                </li>
131                                                <li>
132                                                        Some imported canned goods due to the lead soldering
133                                                </li>
134                                                <li>
135                                                        Food and liquids stored in lead crystal or lead-glazed pottery or porcelain
136                                                </li>
137                                                <li>
138                                                        Dust created during the remodeling of older homes. Lead can also contaminate the soil outside the home
139                                                </li>
140                                                <li>
141                                                        Folk medicines and remedies (azarcon and greta, which are used for upset stomach or indigestion; pay-loo-ah, which is used for rash or fever; kohl or alkohl, which is used as eye cosmetic, to treat skin infections, or as umbilical stump remedy).
142                                                </li>
143                                        </ul>
144                                </div>
145                                <figure title="pottery">
146                                        <img ibis:src="view/image/health/poisonings/lead/pottery.jpg"/> 
147                                        <figcaption>Lead can leach from lead-based glazes on pottery.
148                                        </figcaption>
149                                </figure>               
150                        </section>
151
152                        <section>
153                                <h3>Lead in drinking water</h3>                                         
154                                <p>
155                                        Lead being introduced into water from the disruption of lead containing service lines, such as a meter installation, is mostly associated with older water systems of which there are few in New Mexico. Lead is more likely to be a concern with water systems than in private wells.   
156                                </p>
157                                <ul>
158                                        <li>
159                                                Testing the water is the only way to know if lead is present.
160                                        </li>
161                                        <li>
162                                                Low pH (pH below 6.5) can cause corrosion of plumbing components and dissolve metals like lead, copper and zinc into the water.
163                                        </li>
164                                        <li>
165                                                Household plumbing fixtures, welding solder, and pipe fittings made prior to 1986 may contain lead. Some plumbing components manufactured prior to 2014 may contain up to 8% lead.
166                                        </li>
167                                        <li>
168                                                To remove lead, the USEPA recommends using a NSF/ANSI Standard 53 certified filter.
169                                        </li>
170                                </ul>
171
172                                <h4>Testing for lead in private well water is recommended:</h4>
173                                <ul>
174                                        <li>
175                                                At least once, and again after any disturbance to the well such as maintenance.
176                                        </li>
177                                        <li>
178                                                If pregnant women or children under age 6 live in the house.
179                                        </li>
180                                        <li>
181                                                If lead pipes or fixtures are in the home or suspected to be in the home.
182                                        </li>
183                                        <li>
184                                                After water treatment is installed.
185                                        </li>
186                                        <li>
187                                                The recommend action Level for lead in drinking water is 0.015 milligrams per Liter (mg/L).
188                                        </li>
189                                </ul>
190
191                                <h4>To reduce leadin water:</h4>
192                                <ul>
193                                        <li>
194                                                Flush pipes for two minutes if the water hasn't been used for six hours or more.
195                                        </li>
196                                        <li>
197                                                The US Environmental Protection Agency provides guidance to help consumers find certified lead reducing point of use (at the sink) filters.
198                                        </li>
199                                </ul>
200                        </section>
201                </section>
202
203                <section>
204                        <h2>Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips</h2>
205
206                        <h3>Protect yourself and your family from lead exposure by:</h3>
207                        <ul>
208                                <li>
209                                        <span class="Bold">Removing shoes before going inside your home </span>to avoid tracking in lead from soil. Help your family get into the habit of taking their shoes off when they come inside the house.
210                                </li>
211                                <li>
212                                        <span class="Bold">Showering and changing clothes after finishing the task </span>if you remodel buildings built before 1978 or if your work or hobbies involve working with lead-based products. Don't launder work clothes with the rest of your family's laundry.
213                                </li>
214                                <li>
215                                        <span class="Bold">Wash your hands frequently </span>if you work with lead. Don't smoke or eat while working with lead.
216                                </li>
217                                <li>
218                                        <span class="Bold">Check the Consumer Product Safety Commission website </span>for recalls on products that may contain lead, especially toys and children's clothing (see link in "Downloads and Resources" below.
219                                </li>
220                                <li>
221                                        <span class="Bold">Avoid using home remedies and cosmetics </span>that may contain lead.
222                                </li>
223                                <li>
224                                        <span class="Bold">Check your home for items that may potentially contain lead </span>such as jewelry, toys, and older painted furniture that may be chipping.
225                                </li>
226                                <li>
227                                        <span class="Bold">Make sure children eat healthy and nutritious meals </span>as recommended by the National Dietary Guidelines, because children with good diets absorb less lead. A diet high in vitamin C, iron, and calcium can help reduce lead absorption.
228                                </li>
229                        </ul>
230
231                        <h3>
232                                If you think that your child has been exposed to lead
233                        </h3>
234                        <p>
235                                Ask a doctor to test your child for lead.  Both Federal and State Medicaid regulations require that all children enrolled in Medicaid be tested at 12 months and again at 24 months of age. Children between the ages of 36 months and 72 months of age must receive a screening blood lead test if they have not been previously screened for lead poisoning. No state is exempt from this requirement.
236                        </p>
237                        <p>
238                                Contact the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program at NMDOH for more information (see "Downloads and Resources" below).
239                        </p>
240
241                        <div class="NotifiableCondition">
242                                <h3>Notifiable Diseases or Conditions in New Mexico (N.M.A.C 7.4.3.13)</h3>
243                                <p>
244                                        All levels of lead in blood are reportable to the New Mexico Department of Health. Report to Epidemiology and Response Division, NM Department of Health, P.O. Box 26110, Santa Fe, NM 87502-6110; or call 505-827-0006.
245                                </p>
246                        </div>
247                </section>
248
249                <nav id="moreInformation" title="Links for more information">
250                        <div id="downloadsResources">
251                                <h3>Downloads and Resources</h3>
252                                <div class="Columns">
253                                        <div><div class="Selections">
254                                                <ul>
255                                                        <li>
256                                                                <a href="https://www.nmhealth.org/publication/view/regulation/372/" title="Notifiable Conditions in New Mexico">Notifiable Conditions in New Mexico</a>
257                                                        </li>                                           
258                                                        <li>
259                                                                <a href="https://www.nmhealth.org/about/erd/eheb/clppp/" title="New Mexico Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program">New Mexico Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program</a>
260                                                        </li>                                           
261                                                        <li>
262                                                                <a href="https://www.cpsc.gov/" title="U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission" class="External">United States Consumer Product Safety Commission</a>
263                                                        </li>
264                                                        <li>
265                                                                <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/default.htm" title="CDC Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program" class="External">Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program</a>
266                                                        </li>   
267                                                </ul>
268                                        </div>
269                                        <button>Show All</button>
270                                        </div>
271                                        <img ibis:src="view/image/topic/downloads_resources.png"/>
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275                        <ibis:TopicsMoreData topicSelectionsPath="../../../selections/health/poisoning/lead/"/>
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278        </CONTENT>
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