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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2
3<HTML_CONTENT xmlns:ibis="http://www.ibisph.org">
4
5        <TITLE>COPD</TITLE>
6
7        <HTML_CLASS>Topic Health</HTML_CLASS>
8        <OTHER_HEAD_CONTENT>
9                <link href="css/Topic.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/>
10                <link href="css/_SiteSpecific-Topic.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/>
11
12                <script src="js/jquery.scrollBlockListItems.js"/>
13                <script>
14                        $( document ).ready(function() {
15                                $(".Topic #downloadsResources .Selections").scrollBlockListItems( {"maxSelectionsContainerHeight":190});
16                        });
17                </script>
18        </OTHER_HEAD_CONTENT>
19
20        <CONTENT>
21
22                <header>
23                        <img src="contentfile/image/health/breathing/copd/spirometry.jpg" title="Spirometry"/> 
24                        <h1>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)</h1>
25                </header>
26
27                <section class="SubSectionsContainer">
28                        <h2>What is COPD?</h2>
29                        <p>
30                                Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of serious lung diseases that include emphysema and chronic bronchitis. COPD can cause coughing with, or without large amounts of mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and other symptoms. When COPD is severe, it can cause long-term disability and death. Lower respiratory diseases, which include COPD, are the 4th leading cause of death in the United States<a href="#ref1" id="ref1.link" aria-describedby="footnote-label"></a> and in New Mexico<a href="#ref2" id="ref2.link" aria-describedby="footnote-label"></a>.
31                        </p>
32                        <p>
33                                In COPD, less air flows in and out of the airways because of one or more of the following:                             
34                        </p>
35                        <section class="ImageInfoBlock" style="align-items: center;">
36                                <figure title="Graphic of COPD effects">
37                                        <img src="contentfile/image/health/breathing/copd/COPDgraphic.jpg"/> 
38                                        <figcaption>COPD effects in the lung
39                                        </figcaption>
40                                </figure>
41
42                                <div>
43                                        <ul>
44                                                <li>
45                                                        The airways and air sacs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged lose their elastic quality.
46                                                </li>
47                                                <li>
48                                                        The walls between many of the air sacs are destroyed.
49                                                </li>
50                                                <li>
51                                                        The walls of the airways become thick and inflamed.
52                                                </li>
53                                                <li>
54                                                        The airways make more mucus than usual and can become clogged.
55                                                </li>
56                                        </ul>
57                                </div>
58                        </section>
59                        <p>
60                                COPD develops slowly. Symptoms often worsen over time and can limit the ability to do routine activities. Severe COPD may prevent people from doing even basic activities like walking, cooking, or taking care of themselves. COPD has no cure; doctors don't know how to reverse the damage to the airways and lungs. However, COPD is often preventable and treatable. Treatments and lifestyle changes can help affected people feel better, stay more active, and slow the progress of the disease. Early detection of COPD is key to successful treatment. Knowing the symptoms or exposures to risk factors may lead to early diagnosis of COPD.
61                        </p>
62                </section>
63
64                <section>
65                        <h2>Learn about COPD causes and risk factors</h2>
66                        By far, the largest risk factor for COPD is smoking; Up to 75 percent of people who have COPD smoke or used to smoke<a href="#ref3" id="ref3.link" aria-describedby="footnote-label"></a>. Occupational exposures, (vapor, dust, gas or fumes) may account for about 15% of COPD but 25% of COPD among those who have never smoked<a href="#ref4" id="ref4.link" aria-describedby="footnote-label"></a>. Other environmental factors include exposure to motor vehicle exhaust and exposure to burning of biomass (e.g. cooking over wood stoves). Other factors include frequent respiratory infections in childhood and having Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, a rare genetic disorder<a href="#ref5" id="ref5.link" aria-describedby="footnote-label"></a>.
67                        As of 2014, 15.7 million Americans reported having physician-diagnosed COPD, however it is there is a common belief that COPD often goes undiagnosed. There are also large racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and gender biases in COPD prevalence. In 2013, the following U.S. groups were more likely to report having COPD<a href="#ref6" id="ref6.link" aria-describedby="footnote-label"></a>:
68                        <ul class="Indent">
69                                <li>
70                                        Women
71                                </li>
72                                <li>
73                                        People aged 65 to 74 years and over 75 years
74                                </li>
75                                <li>
76                                        American Indians/Alaska Natives and multiracial non-Hispanics
77                                </li>
78                                <li>
79                                        People who were unemployed, retired, or unable to work
80                                </li>
81                                <li>
82                                        People with less than a high school education
83                                </li>
84                                <li>
85                                        People who were divorced, widowed, or separated
86                                </li>
87                                <li>
88                                        Current or former smokers
89                                </li>
90                                <li>
91                                        People with a history of asthma.
92                                </li>
93                        </ul>
94                </section>
95
96                <section class="SubSectionsContainer">
97                        <h2>Tips for managing COPD</h2>
98                        <section class="ImageInfoBlock">
99                                <div>
100                                        <ul>
101                                                <li>
102                                                        <span class="Bold">Quit smoking</span> and keep your home smoke free. 
103                                                </li>
104                                                <li>
105                                                        <span class="Bold">Visit your doctor regularly. </span> Let your provider know if any of your symptoms change over time.
106                                                </li>
107                                                <li>
108                                                        <span class="Bold">Protect yourself from germs that can affect the lungs.</span> Talk with your doctor about which vaccines to get, including for flu (influenza) and pneumonia.
109                                                </li>
110                                                <li>
111                                                        <span class="Bold">Prepare for disease flare-ups. </span> Know when and where to seek help for your symptoms. Get emergency care if you have severe symptoms, such as trouble catching your breath or talking.
112                                                </li>
113                                                <li>
114                                                        <span class="Bold">Pay attention to air quality outdoors. </span> Limit your time outside when pollution levels are high and during wildland fire smoke events.
115                                                </li>
116                                                <li>
117                                                        <span class="Bold">Pay attention to air quality indoors. </span>High pollutant levels inside the home can make breathing harder for people with COPD. Don't let others smoke in your home. Limit cooking methods that create smoke or fumes. Don't overuse harsh cleaning products. 
118                                                </li>                                           
119                                        </ul>
120                                </div> 
121
122                                <figure title="wildfire smoke">
123                                        <img src="contentfile/image/health/breathing/copd/smoke.png"/> 
124                                        <figcaption>Smoke from fires can make COPD worse.
125                                        </figcaption>
126                                </figure>
127                        </section>
128                </section>
129
130                <footer class="Footnotes">
131                        <ol>
132                                <li id="ref1"> <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm">
133                                        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Leading Causes of Death</a> Accessed 12/30/2020
134                                        <a href="#ref1.link" aria-label="Back to content">«</a>
135                                </li>
136                                <li id="ref2"> <a href="https://ibis.health.state.nm.us/query/selection/mort/_MortSelection.html">
137                                        New Mexico Death Certificate Database, Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics, New Mexico Department of Health from New Mexico Department of Health, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health website</a> Accessed 12/30/2020.
138                                        <a href="#ref2.link" aria-label="Back to content">«</a>
139                                </li>
140                                <li id="ref3"> <a href="https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/copd">
141                                        National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute: COPD</a> Accessed 12/31/2020.
142                                <a href="#ref3.link" aria-label="Back to content">«</a></li>
143                                <li id="ref4"> <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6813a2external icon">
144                                        Syamlal G, Doney B, Mazurek JM. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevalence Among Adults Who Have Never Smoked, by Industry and Occupation - United States, 2013-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:303-307. DOI:</a> Accessed 12/31/2020.
145                                <a href="#ref4.link" aria-label="Back to content">«</a></li>
146                                <li id="ref5"> <a href="https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/5784/alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency">
147                                        National Institutes of Health, Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency</a> Accessed 12/31/2020.
148                                <a href="#ref5.link" aria-label="Back to content">«</a></li>
149                                <li id="ref6"> <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/copd/basics-about.html">
150                                        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:deficiency: COPD Basics</a> Accessed 12/31/2020.
151                                <a href="#ref6.link" aria-label="Back to content">«</a></li>
152                        </ol>
153                </footer>       
154
155                <nav id="moreInformation" title="Links for more information">
156                        <div id="downloadsResources">
157                                <h3>Downloads and Resources</h3>
158                                <div class="Columns">
159                                        <div class="Selections">
160                                                <ul>
161                                                        <li>
162                                                                <a href="https://www.quitnownm.com/" title="QuitnowNM">TUPAC's Quit Now Cessation Services</a>
163                                                        </li>
164                                                        <li>
165                                                                <a href="https://www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/copd/learn-about-copd" title="COPD general information">COPD General Information</a>
166                                                        </li>
167                                                </ul>
168                                       
169                                        </div>
170                                        <img src="contentfile/image/topic/downloads_resources.png"/>
171                                </div>
172                        </div>
173
174                        <ibis:TopicsMoreData topicSelectionsPath="../../../selections/health/breathing/copd/"/>
175                </nav>
176
177        </CONTENT>
178</HTML_CONTENT>
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